Table 1

Frameworks used in studies to guide process evaluation

AuthorsYearTitleTimes citedOriginal components of the frameworkModifications made by study
Moore et al 9 2015Process Evaluation of Complex Interventions: Medical Research Council Guidance8
  • Context:

    • Contextual factors that shape theories of how the intervention works;

    • Contextual factors that affect implementation, intervention mechanisms and outcomes;

    • Causal mechanisms present within the context which act to sustain the status quo, or potentiate effects.

  • Implementation:

    • Implementation process (how delivery is achieved);

    • What is delivered: Fidelity, dose, adaptations, reach.

  • Mechanisms of impact:

    • Participants responses to and interactions with the intervention;

    • Mediators;

    • Unexpected pathways and consequences.

McMaughan et al 54 and Geelen et al 42 looked at the participants’ and stakeholders’ perceptions and experience with implemented interventions.
Cedstrand et al 55 integrated Nielsen and Randal’s components of readiness for change and available support from managers.
Fusari et al 43 incorporated the logic model’s steps, that is, needs, evidence, input, activities, outputs, outcomes and impact.
Steckler and Linnan62 2002Process Evaluation for Public Health
Interventions and Research
  • Context;

  • Reach;

  • Dose given;

  • Dose received;

  • Fidelity;

  • Implementation;

  • Recruitment.

Yeary et al 51 also assessed the acceptability of intervention components (satisfaction). Tolma et al 58 add the evaluation of barriers to maintenance.
Saunders et al 8 2005Developing a process-evaluation plan for assessing health promotion programme implementation: a how-to guide3
  • Fidelity;

  • Dose delivered;

  • Dose received;

  • Reach;

  • Recruitment;

  • Context.

Dean et al 67 further included the assessment of the experiences of the target population’s participation in the intervention.
Nielsen and Randall69 2012Framework for Evaluating Organizational-level Interventions3
  • Context:

    • Omnibus context, that is, the general intervention and implementation setting;

    • Discrete context; that is, specific events that may have influenced the effects of the intervention.

  • Intervention:

    • Initiation;

    • Intervention activities: risk assessment, action plans;

    • Implementation strategy: drivers of change, participation, support from senior; management, middle managers, consultants, communication and information.

  • Mental models:

    • Mental models;

    • Readiness for change;

    • Perceptions of intervention activities;

    • Changes in mental models.

Cedstrand et al 55 further incorporated this framework with elements from Moore et al related to the intervention implementation, that is, fidelity, dose and reach.
Lelie et al 70 further investigated reach, tailoring and exposure. As part of context, explores the role of culture.
Schelvis et al 63 further looked into reach, satisfaction, targeting, delivery, exposure, culture and conditions.
Greer et al 71 2016Peer Engagement and Evaluation Project (PEEP)2
  • Supportive environment;

  • Equitable participation;

  • Capacity building and empowerment;

  • Improved programming and policy.

Glasgow et al 66 1999RE-AIM2
  • Reach

  • Effectiveness

  • Adoption

  • Implementation

  • Maintenance

Anselma et al 53 further included the perceived effects on children’s participation and their experiences with the collaboration and communication during the intervention.
Damschroder et al 72 2009The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research based on user feedback1
  • Innovation characteristics;

  • Outer setting

  • Inner setting

  • Individual characteristics

  • Implementation process

Morgan et al 34 to their evaluation added the category of Innovation Sustainability, within which they include a feasibility evaluation.
Nielsen and Abildgaard74 2013Organisational interventions: a research-based framework for the evaluation of both process and effects1
  • Change mechanisms (organisational actors’ mental models and behaviours)

  • Initiation

  • Screening

  • Action planning

  • Implementation

  • Context

Rowe and Frewer75 2000Public participation methods: a framework for evaluation.1
  • Resource accessibility

  • Task definition

  • Structured decision-making

  • Cost-effectiveness

Dyer et al 59 added several components related to the evaluation of the cocreation process.
Grant et al 77 2013Process evaluations for cluster-randomised trials of complex interventions: a proposed framework for design and reporting1
  • Processes involving clusters

  • Recruitment of clusters; Delivery to clusters; Response of clusters Process involving target population

  • Recruitment and reach of individuals; Delivery to individuals; Response of individuals

  • Maintenance

  • Theory

  • Context

Beckerman-Hsu et al 76 further explored adherence (content, reach, frequency, duration), adaptations (additions, deletions, modifications) and details on the quality of intervention delivery, participant responsiveness, barriers and facilitators to implementation.