Table 4

Impacts on public health obtained from the literature (see text)

The 12-D frameworkImpacts on public health concluded from the literature
DisabilitiesBlast and gunshot injuries.48
Paralysis, amputation, loss of function and brain trauma.49
DisparitiesInequalities in access to health as well as outcomes.27
DisplacementMore than 10 million refugees cross to Poland from Ukraine in 1 year.50
Disrupting the social fabricPost-conflict mental health issues from multiple causes, including social crises.20 51
Development reversalsWar adversely impacts education of children in Syria and Yemen.52 53
Devastation of the environmentDecline in wildlife, especially larger mammals in Africa after wars.54
Ukraine–Russian war and its impacts on environment.55
Depletion of natural resourcesRussia–Ukraine armed conflict disrupts water systems.56