Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics at baseline

IndonesiaViet Nam
(1)(2)(3)(4)
Posbindu participantsNon-participantsISHC membersCBG members
n=776n=776n=897n=813
Sociodemographics
 Age47.82 (11.28)48.15 (12.46)65.31 (8.15)66.63 (8.23)
 Gender
  Female633 (82%)636 (82%)680 (76%)629 (77%)
  Male143 (18%)140 (18%)217 (24%)184 (23%)
 Education
  Less than high school285 (37%)278 (36%)578 (64%)635 (78%)
  High school407 (52%)411 (53%)196 (22%)134 (16%)
  More than high school84 (11%)87 (11%)123 (14%)44 (5%)
 Working status
  Currently working (agriculture)56 (7%)47 (6%)371 (41%)348 (43%)
  Currently working (non-agriculture)309 (40%)322 (41%)101 (11%)68 (8%)
  Not working (retired/old/sick)108 (14%)112 (14%)367 (41%)347 (43%)
  Homemaker254 (33%)237 (31%)53 (6%)42 (5%)
  Other49 (6%)58 (7%)5 (1%)8 (1%)
 Marital status
  Single21 (3%)21 (3%)14/896 (2%)21 (3%)
  Married632 (81%)637 (82%)669/896 (75%)592 (73%)
  Separated/divorced/widowed123 (16%)118 (15%)213/896 (24%)200 (25%)
 Asset index4.45 (1.34)4.45 (1.25)3.75 (1.08)3.50 (1.15)
 Household monthly income
  US$0 to US$<70197 (25%)187 (24%)96/740 (13%)153/638 (24%)
  US$70 to US$<140262 (34%)238 (31%)103/740 (14%)102/638 (16%)
  US$140 to US$<351270 (35%)307 (40%)206/740 (28%)190/638 (30%)
  US$>35131 (4%)27 (3%)335/740 (45%)193/638 (30%)
  Refused16 (2%)17 (2%)
NCD diagnosis
 Diagnosed with hypertension202 (26%)205 (26%)293 (33%)301 (37%)
 Diagnosed with diabetes/high blood sugar55 (7%)57 (7%)79 (9%)87 (11%)
  • Mean (SD in parentheses) for continuous variables and n (% in parentheses) for categorical/binary variables for both countries at baseline. Income and education categories are aligned between countries.

  • *The following exchange rates are applied: Indonesia, 2021 exchange rate of 14 242 IDR to US$1; Viet Nam, 2021 exchange rate of 22 770 VND to US$1. Converted into purchasing power parties, US$1 in IDR in 2021 corresponds to US$2.91 in 2017. Likewise, US$1 in VND in 2021 corresponds to US$2.97 in 2017 expressed in purchasing power parities. Put differently, 14 242 IDR (22 770 VND) in 2021 could by a bundle of goods and services worth US$2.91 in 2017 (US$2.97).

  • CBG, community-based group; ISHC, Intergenerational Self-Help Club; NCD, non-communicable disease.