Table 2

The relationship of the 12-D framework to social and environmental determinants

The 12-D frameworkSocial determinants listed in reputed texts and resources
Solid facts14 WHO15 Canada16 Key textbook17
DeathCommonly used matric for health outcomes
DependencyAddictionHealthy behaviours
DeformitiesBiology and genetic endowment
DisparitiesSocial gradientIncome and social status
DisplacementSocial exclusionSocial exclusion
Disrupting the social fabricEarly lifeEarly childhood developmentChildhood experiencesEarly life
EducationEducation and literacy
Work, unemploymentUnemployment and job insecurityEmploymentLabour market
Social exclusionSocial cohesion
and psychosocial environment
Social supportSocial protectionSocial supportsSocial support
Working life conditionsWorking conditions
Development reversalsIncome and educationPoverty
Destruction of infrastructureHealth servicesAccess to health servicesNeighbourhoods
TransportBasic amenities
Devastation of environmentEnvironmentPhysical environment
Depletion of natural resourcesFoodFood insecurityFood