Outcome | Low-income caregivers (n=436*) | Higher-income caregivers (n=556*) | |||||

β | 95% CI | P value | β | 95% CI | P value | Heterogeneity P values | |

Linear regression for mean parenting score (β) | |||||||

Parent responsiveness | 0.01 | −0.14 to 0.16 | 0.89 | 0.09 | −0.04 to 0.22 | 0.19 | 0.45 |

Parent sensitivity | 0.18 | 0.03 to 0.34 | 0.02† | 0.02 | −0.11 to 0.15 | 0.78 | 0.11 |

Parent coerciveness | 0.02 | −0.34 to 0.39 | 0.89 | 0.11 | −0.24 to 0.47 | 0.53 | 0.73 |

Parent guidance | −0.01 | −0.07 to 0.06 | 0.87 | −0.01 | −0.08 to 0.06 | 0.69 | 0.87 |

Logistic regression for OR estimated via regression model (high-income caregivers) or bootstrapping (n=2999) using BCa (low-income caregivers) | |||||||

OR | 95% CI | OR | 95% CI | P value | |||

Quality of parent–child relationship | 0.89 | 0.44 to 1.21 | 0.87 | 0.62 to 1.21 | 0.40 | 0.92 |

*Effective sample size (ESS) is the effective sample size and is used in cases of full matching when matched samples are calculated via stratification and weighting. In the case of this moderation analyses, the ESS for low-income families is n=436, where there are 123 controls and 313 treated individuals. The ESS for higher income families is n=556, where there are 282 controls and 274 treated individuals.

†, Denotes p value below the 0.05 threshold; BCa, Bias-corrected and accelerated bootstrap interval.