Table 3

Bivariate risk factors of defaulting RoS schemes in South Africa**

CharacteristicsOverallLeft prematurelyServed/still servingRR (95% CI)P value
Service status; n (%)1056 (100.0)704 (66.7)352 (33.3)<0.0001*
Sex; n (%)
 Male539 (100.0)351 (65.1)188 (34.9)refref
 Female517 (100.0)353 (68.3)164 (31.7)1.1 (0.9 to 1.3)0.277
Age†, years; med (p25–p75)25.3 (23.9–28.0)25.2 (23.9–27.8)25.9 (23.8–28.3)0.245‡
Race; n (%)
 Mixed-race36 (100.0)18 (50.0)18 (50.0)refref
 African955 (100.0)636 (66.6)319 (33.4)1.5 (1.1 to 2.1)0.020
 White46 (100.0)36 (78.3)10 (21.7)2.3 (1.2 to 4.4)0.011
 Indian10 (100.0)7 (70.0)3 (30.0)1.7 (0.6 to 4.5)0.317
Degree; n (%)
 Dentistry68 (100.0)38 (55.9)30 (44.1)refref
 Medicine658 (100.0)452 (68.7)206 (31.3)1.4 (1.1 to 1.9)0.021
 Pharmacy189 (100.0)121 (64.0)68 (36.0)1.2 (0.9 to 1.7)0.223
 Physiotherapy53 (100.0)35 (66.0)18 (34.0)1.3 (0.8 to 2.1)0.266
 Occupational therapy65 (100.0)41 (63.1)24 (36.9)1.2 (0.8 to 1.8)0.401
 Speech therapy and/or audiology23 (100.0)17 (73.9)6 (26.1)1.7 (0.8 to 3.5)0.163
Country of study; n (%)
 Cuba100 (100.0)41 (41.0)59 (59.0)refref
 South Africa558 (100.0)411 (73.7)147 (26.3)2.2 (1.8 to 2.8)<0.0001
Internship in funding province§; n (%)
 Yes277 (100.0)158 (57.0)119 (43.0)refref
 No584 (100.0)429 (73.5)155 (26.5)1.6 (1.3 to 2.0)<0.0001
Community service in funding province; n (%)
 Yes774 (100.0)431 (55.7)343 (44.3)Refref
 No282 (100.0)273 (96.8)9 (3.2)13.9 (7.3 to 26.5)<0.0001
RoS fulfilment, years; med (p25–p75)
 Medicine1.9 (1.0–4.7)1.0 (0–2.1)6.0 (4.0–8.9)<0.0001‡
 Pharmacy1.3 (0–6)1.0 (0–1.3)9.2 (5.4–11.6)<0.0001‡
 Dentistry3.0 (0–10.4)1.0 (0–1.0)10.8 (7.6–12.2)<0.0001‡
 Physiotherapy1.0 (0–6.7)1.0 (0–1.0)8.5 (6.7–13.2)<0.0001‡
 Occupational therapy1.6 (0–6.1)0.0 (0–1.2)8.0 (6.0–10.7)<0.0001‡
 Speech therapy and/or audiology2.2 (0–3.9)2.0 (0–2.3)4.7 (4.0–10.2)0.004‡
 All programmes1.7 (0–5.2)1.0 (0–2.0)7.0 (4.7–10.2)0.0001¶
RoS fulfilment, years; n (%)
 5–7134 (100.0)26 (19.4)108 (80.6)refref
 None275 (100.0)275 (100.0)0 (0.0)
 One230 (100.0)219 (95.2)11 (4.8)16.9 (9.4 to 30.2)<0.0001
 2–4257 (100.0)182 (70.8)75 (29.2)2.8 (2.2 to 3.4)<0.0001
 8–958 (100.0)2 (3.4)56 (96.6)0.8 (0.8 to 0.9)<0.0001
 10–21102 (100.0)0 (0.0)102 (100.0)
  • *Two-sample test of proportions was used.

  • †Age at study completion.

  • ‡Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used.

  • §Only pharmacists and medical doctors.

  • ¶Kruskal-Wallis test was used.

  • **Data exclude early attritions; one medical specialist in MP and the one individual who is still studying.

  • med, median; p25, 25th percentile; p75, 75th percentile; ref, reference; RoS, return-of-service; RR, risk ratio.