Table 3

Income inequality and COVID-19 excess mortality

Global sampleExcluding AfricaOnly Africa
Gini index246.30**
UNAIDS regions fixed effectsYesYesYes
Observations (n)17112348
COVID-19 excess mortality response to 25% reduction in Gini index−35.27
  • Dependent variable is COVID-19 excess mortality rate per 100 000 people.

  • Analytical SEs in parenthesis (); bootstrapped SEs using 500 replications in square brackets []; **p<0.05.

  • Covariates include current health expenditure per capita and World Bank income categories (low, lower middle, upper middle and upper income countries); UNAIDS regions included East and Southern Africa, West and Central Africa, Asia and Pacific, Eastern Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, North Africa and the Middle East, West and Central Europe and North America.