Table 2

Consensus support and rank of strategic priorities for advancing global drowning prevention

DomainPriority% high rangeRank
Round 1Round 2Overall
1. Priorities for research and further contextualisation of drowning prevention.

The term ‘investigate’ includes expand research, the synthesis and dissemination of existing research.
Investigate the impact of social and demographic factors on drowning prevention.83.316
Investigate the burden and effectiveness of interventions addressing child and adolescent drowning.82.518
Investigate behavioural factors including risk taking, alcohol and other drug use and use of safety equipment.75.481.936
Investigate drowning prevention contexts in open water environments.70.977.943
Investigate the burden and risk across all life stages, including men and older adults.73.876.044
Investigate the impact of climatic and disaster contexts (including heatwave, flooding, tsunami and storm surge).77.075.545
Investigate global and regional burdens and contexts.75.474.847
Investigate the influence of migration in transit and settlement on drowning and drowning prevention.62.7Exc.
Investigate the use of physical environmental modification as an intervention for drowning prevention.55.6Exc.
Investigate occupational contexts including workers employed in small-scale fishing and agriculture settings.55.1Exc.
Investigate treatment, rehabilitation and psychosocial support for non-fatal drowning.50.0Exc.
2. Priorities for best practice guidance.

The term ‘develop’ includes implementation and evaluating.
Develop systematic approaches to teaching children swimming and water safety skills.90.71
Promote best practice guidance for community education and training interventions.84.712
Promote WHO guidance for safe places for preschool children in high burden populations.83.513
Develop best practice guidance for integrating drowning prevention into existing disaster preparation, response and resilience systems.79.783.831
Develop systematic approaches to training community members in safe rescue and resuscitation.78.081.935
Develop best practice guidance and capacity for lifeguard (pool and open water) services, especially in LMICs.69.5*81.139
Develop best practice guidance for emergency treatment, hospital care and rehabilitation for drowning victims.72.472.449
Develop best practice guidance for drowning prevention through safe boating, shipping and ferry regulations.68.6Inc.
Develop best practice guidance for the prevention of alcohol-related drowning in recreational settings.64.4Exc.
3. Priorities for capacity building.

The phrase ‘strengthen capacity’ includes developing, resourcing and evaluating.
Strengthen capacity for data systems to measure and monitor drowning burden at all levels.88.82
Strengthen capacity for policy-based approaches to drowning prevention.80.025
Strengthen capacity for implementation research.79.184.529
Strengthen capacity for behaviour change and social marketing.73.384.330
Strengthen capacity of safety and risk management systems.71.183.233
Strengthen capacity of civil society to engage in drowning prevention (at all levels).75.279.840
Strengthen capacity for multidisciplinary research.73.973.848
Strengthen the capacity of the health sector for drowning prevention.68.7Inc.
Strengthen technical capacity for lifeguard and rescue services (pool and open water).68.4Inc.
Strengthen technical capacity of media sector to investigate and report on drowning prevention.63.8Exc.
4. Priorities for engagement with health and sustainable development agendas.Align drowning prevention within the Disaster Risk Reduction agenda and to the Sendai Framework.85.19
Align drowning prevention with the Sustainable Development Agenda 2030.82.320
Integrate drowning prevention within child and adolescent health agendas.77.792.326
Integrate drowning prevention within climate and health agendas.74.683.532
Integrate drowning prevention within Disaster Risk Reduction agendas.81.6Inc.
Integrate drowning prevention within SDG 3 - good health and well-being agendas.67.3Exc.
Integrate drowning prevention within Universal Health Coverage agendas.61.5Exc.
Integrate drowning prevention within the United Nations Decade of Healthy Ageing (2021–2030).55.1Exc.
Integrate drowning prevention within planetary health agendas.52.8Exc.
Integrate drowning prevention within urban health agendas.51.8Exc.
5. Priorities for high level political advocacy.Develop strategies for engagement with the Least Developed Countries, Landlocked Developing Countries and Small Island Developing States.82.917
Develop an accountability framework aligned to the UN Resolution on Global Drowning Prevention to monitor national progress.80.724
Develop strategies for engagement including with UN agencies like UNICEF, UNISDR, IMO, ILO, IOM, UNDP.76.886.927
Develop strategies for continued engagement at the World Health Assembly.77.586.128
Develop strategies for engagement with World Bank initiatives for urban, rural, environmental and human development.73.278.042
Develop strategies for engagement with the UN Office for Disaster Risk Reduction, and alignment to the Sendai Framework.76.9Inc.
Develop strategies to transform the UN Resolution voluntary actions into an accountability, reporting and measurement framework.70.1Inc.
Develop strategies to position drowning prevention within the next report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.67.0Exc.
Develop strategies for integrating drowning prevention into other UN plans or strategies, please specify in notes.66.3Exc.
Develop strategies for engagement with the International Olympic Committee Peace and Development through Sport Initiative43.1Exc.
6. Priorities for multisectoral action for drowning prevention.Develop national/subnational strategies and action plans.87.74
Develop inclusive approaches with governments, civil society, community and private sector.86.56
Strengthen multisectoral policies that address drowning prevention challenges (at all levels).85.87
Strengthen coordinating mechanisms to facilitate collaboration and accountability at national/subnational levels.85.010
Prioritise partnerships with the early childhood care and development sector.83.514
Prioritise partnerships with the education sector.82.519
Prioritise partnerships with the emergency sector, including with police and fire departments.81.622
Increase funding for pathway projects in multisectoral action for drowning prevention.82.121
Prioritise partnerships with the health and well-being sector.72.281.638
Prioritise partnerships with the maritime, boating and passenger ferry sector.79.178.641
Prioritise partnerships with the transport sector, including water transport and roads.72.875.046
Prioritise partnerships with the small-scale artisanal fisheries sector.69.6*71.650
Prioritise partnerships with the tourism sector.68.7Exc.
Prioritise partnerships with the sport, physical activity and leisure sector.63.5Exc.
Prioritise partnerships with the water, sanitation and hygiene sector.63.1Exc.
Prioritise partnerships with the agriculture and rural development sector.62.6Exc.
7. Priorities for inclusive global governance with strengthened accountability.Increase funding for advocacy, research, policy and implementation.88.73
Develop regional strategies, and action plans for drowning prevention.86.85
Establish a global alliance for drowning prevention.85.88
Prioritise inclusion of high burden populations in decision-making and global governance.85.011
Convene multistakeholder meetings and forums to coordinate drowning prevention efforts.83.515
Adopt a targeted country approach, by selecting 10 priority countries across different contexts to identify and share novel approaches.81.423
Develop a global strategy for drowning prevention.73.782.534
Develop a business case for establishing a global fund for drowning prevention.73.581.737
  • Note: * priority included in round two as advisory recommendation as scored highly by LMIC participants in round one.

  • Exc, excluded after round one; ILO, International Labour Organization; IMO, International Maritime Organization; Inc, included in another priority after round one; IOM, International Organization for Migration; LMICs, low and middle-income countries; MSA, multisectoral action; SDG, Sustainable Development Goal; UN, United Nations; UNDP, United Nations Development Programme; UNISDR, United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction.