Table 2

Results of the final sequential multiple logistic regression model (model 5) for association of stillbirth with sociodemographic, maternal, pregnancy, labour and delivery-related risk factors in the Indian state of Bihar for all births, for births during the COVID-19 peak period and for births during the COVID-19 non-peak period

Risk factorRisk factor categoriesOR for stillbirth (95% CI)
All birthsCOVID-19 peak period birthsCOVID-19 non-peak period births
Place of residenceRural0.91 (0.70 to 1.17)0.98 (0.71 to 1.34)0.85 (0.53 to 1.37)
Urban1.001.001.00
Sex of the babyBoy1.26 (1.04 to 3.54)1.19 (0.93 to 1.53)1.46 (1.04 to 2.05)
Girl1.001.00
Wealth index quartileI (lowest)1.36 (0.80 to 2.33)
II1.84 (1.12 to 3.04)
III1.38 (0.83 to 2.30)
IV (highest)1.00
Maternal age (years)15–191.03 (0.61 to 1.74)
20–240.80 (0.53 to 1.21)
25–290.83 (0.54 to 1.26)
30–341.01 (0.64 to 1.59)
≥351.00
Solid cooking fuel useYes
No
First-bornYes1.26 (0.95 to 1.67)
No1.00
History of stillbirthYes2.00 (1.42 to 2.81)2.29 (1.48 to 3.53)1.94 (1.11 to 3.38)
No1.001.001.00
History of miscarriageYes
No
Maternal antenatal care visit during pregnancyNo1.48 (0.97 to 2.26)2.83 (1.55 to 5.14)
Yes1.001.00
Mother received 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy.Yes1.00
No1.21 (0.98 to 1.50)
Mother consumed iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy.Yes1.001.00
No1.25 (0.98 to 1.60)1.52 (1.15 to 2.00)
Pregnancy with multiple fetusesYes
No
Maternal hypertension in the last trimester of pregnancyYes
No
Mother had malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy.Yes
No
Mother was diagnosed with syphilis during this pregnancy.Yes
No
Mother had fever in the last 3 months of pregnancy.Yes1.08 (0.76 to 1.54)1.53 (1.03 to 2.28)0.43 (0.19 to 0.97)
No1.001.001.00
Mother had convulsions in the last 3 months of pregnancy.Yes1.43 (0.92 to 2.22)
No1.00
Mother was informed baby was not growing adequately inside the womb.Yes
No
Number of months in the last trimester of pregnancy during the COVID-19 peak period01.00
11.15 (0.81 to 1.63)1.00
21.48 (1.07 to 2.04)1.47 (1.04 to 2.08)
31.66 (1.19 to 2.30)1.45 (1.05 to 2.00)
Gestation period (months)77.77 (5.53 to 10.94)8.08 (5.28 to 12.35)8.47 (4.73 to 15.18)
>7 to 81.60 (1.29 to 1.98)1.55 (1.19 to 2.04)1.72 (1.20 to 2.45)
>81.001.001.00
Deferred deliveryYes
No
Delivery was referred to another healthcare provider.Yes3.22 (2.44 to 4.26)3.03 (2.11 to 4.35)3.10 (1.98 to 4.85)
No1.001.001.00
Spontaneous labourYes0.66 (0.49 to 0.88)0.54 (0.38 to 0.77)
No1.001.001.00
Place of deliveryPublic facility1.001.001.00
Private facility2.66 (2.01 to 3.52)2.42 (1.69 to 3.45)3.46 (2.18 to 5.48)
Home2.25 (1.68 to 2.96)2.65 (1.86 to 3.76)2.03 (1.26 to 3.28)
En route to the facility2.64 (1.31 to 5.27)3.91 (1.73 to 8.85)1.29 (0.29 to 5.77)
Vaginal deliveryYes1.22 (0.89 to 1.68)1.17 (0.77 to 1.76)1.38 (0.83 to 2.27)
No
Push/forceful pull was done during delivery by the health provider.Yes5.82 (4.44 to 7.64)7.31 (5.21 to 10.28)4.08 (2.56 to 6.50)
No1.001.001.00
Entangled cord around the baby’s neckYes0.55 (0.25 to 1.20)0.65 (0.25 to 1.67)0.41 (0.09 to 1.89)
No1.001.001.00
Breech presentation of the babyYes2.05 (1.49 to 2.82)1.67 (1.10 to 2.54)2.84 (1.71 to 4.73)
No1.001.001.00
  • Statistically significant ORs are shown in bold.