Table 1

KMC vs conventional newborn care – characteristics of included studies

S. noAuthor, YearCountryStabilisation statusIntervention groupControl groupAge at initiation of KMC
KMC duration
(hours per day*)
Last follow-upSchema for follow-up
1.Ali et al 10 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots4.76.3±1.5 (range 4 to 12)6 months corrected ageWeekly until 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age, fortnightly until 3 months corrected age, and monthly until 6 months corrected age
2.Alisjahbana et al 11 IndonesiaStableKMC in communityConventional home care4 weeks after dischargeWeekly for 4 weeks after discharge
3.Archarya et al 9 NepalStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots6In-hospitalNot reported
4.Bier et al 12 USAStableKMC in facilityConventional clothed296 months after hospital dischargeAt 1, 3, and 6 months after hospital discharge
5.Boo et al 13 MalaysiaStableKMC in facilityConventional NICU251In-hospitalNot reported
6.Cattaneo et a 14 EthiopiaStableKMC in facilityConventional open cribs, incubator or warmer102030 days postnatal ageFour times: at 3, 10, 20, and 30 days, and as usually scheduled at each hospital afterwards
7.Charpak et al 15 ColumbiaStableKMC in facilityConventional incubator4241 year and 20 years for a subset of enrolled subjectedAt least once a week until 40 weeks’postmenstrual age; then monthly up to 3 months' corrected age, every 6 weeks until at least 6 months' corrected age, and every third month until 12 months' corrected age
8.Bhavana et al 16 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots13–14Until 2.5 kg weightAfter discharge, babies were followed-up twice a week for the first week and weekly until babies reached 2.5 kg
9.Pratiwi et al 17 IndonesiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots110.0±1.8In-hospital
10.Gathwala et al 18 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots1.710.2±1.53 months of ageWeekly until 3 months of age
11.Ghavane et al 19 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots14840 weeks postmenstrual ageWeekly until 40 weeks' postmenstrual age
12.Hake-Brooks et al 20 USAStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots1Follow-up done telephonically at 6 weeks and 3 months and by an interview in the clinic at 6, 12, and 18 months
13.Kadam et al 21 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots3.29.8±3.7In-hospital
14.Kumbhojkar et al 22 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots311.540 weeks’ PMA or weight of 2500 gWeekly until 40 weeks' postmenstrual age in preterm infants, or until a weight of 2500 g was reached
15.Mazumder et al 4 IndiaStableKMC in communityConventional home care32.7 hours11.5 vs 0.228 days postnatal age and 1 year follow-upMothers and infants in the intervention group were visited at home (days 1–3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28) to support kangaroo mother care
16.Md Mahbubul et al
BangladeshStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots1.8In-hospitalOutcome measures ended before hospital discharge
KenyaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots108In-hospitalNone. Only in-hospital outcomes reported
18.Neu and Robinson26 USAStableKMC in facilityConventional1516 months of ageTwice a week for 2 weeks, followed by weekly visits for 6 months
19.Nimbalkar et al 27 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventionalImmediate17.0±0.3In-hospital
20.Ramanathan et al 282001IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots11.84In-hospital
21.Roberts et al 29 AustraliaStableKMC in facilityConventional clothed311.6±0.96 months of ageAt 6 weeks after discharge or at 3 months of age, whichever was later, and at 6 months
22.Rojas et al 30 USAStableKMC in facilityConventional incubator191.3±0.7In-hospital
23.Sloan et al 31 EcuadorStableKMC in facilityConventional incubator or crib136 months of ageAt 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 months of age
24.Suman et al 32 IndiaStableKMC in facilityConventional warmer or cots3.713.540 weeks post menstrual age or until weight of 2500 gWeekly until 40 weeks' postmenstrual age in preterm infants, or until a weight of 2500 g in term SGA infants
25.Wang et al 33 ChinaStableKMC in facilityConventional2.56 months corrected ageFollow-up appointments in outpatient setting at 40 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months CA
26.Whitelaw et al 34 UKStableKMC in facilityConventional incubator or crib160.6
(0 to 1.5)
12 months of ageAt 6, 9, and 12 months of age
27.Worku et al 35 EthiopiaUnstableKMC in facilityConventional incubator or crib10ContinuousUntil hospital discharge
  • *mean (± SD) duration of KMC in KMC group

  • CA, corrected age; KMC, Kangaroo mother care; NICU, give details; SGA, small for gesational age.