Table 1

Failure frequency by continent/country in prevalence surveys

ContinentIncomeCountryNo of publicationsNo of data pointsFailure frequency % (n/N)
Americas11.8 (2/17)
HICUSA1612.5 (2/16)
UMICJamaica110.0 (0/1)
Europe9.5 (2/21)
HICLithuania2540.0 (2/5)
HICUK130.0 (0/16)
Asia2.8 (2/72)
UMICChina1333.3 (1/3)
LMICCambodia1114.3 (1/7)
LMICIndia170.0 (0/17)
UMICThailand130.0 (0/3)
UnknownUnknown*180.0 (0/42)
Africa1.2 (45/3603)
LICEthiopia1425.0 (1/4)
LMICSenegal2914.5 (8/55)
UMICSouth Africa399.1 (1/11)
LMICNigeria2115.7 (4/70)
LICDR Congo2113.9 (2/51)
LMICZambia5173.1 (2/65)
LMICCameroon2111.4 (1/69)
LICTanzania3230.9 (24/2707)
UnknownUnknown†110.8 (1/126)
LMICKenya3260.3 (1/394)
LICUganda290.0 (0/51)
Total191681.4 (51/3713)
  • Because of the limited number of samples tested for quality in the studies included in this review, the figures should not be interpreted as representative of the prevalence of specific SF antiretroviral medicines (please refer to the discussion section of the current paper for more details).

  • *Multicountry study (Thailand and Vietnam) with no break down of the results by country.

  • †Multicountry study (Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Nigeria, Rwanda and Zambia in Africa) with no break down of the results by country

  • DR Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo; HIC, high-income country; LIC, low-income country; LMIC, lower-middle-income country; SF, substandard and falsified; UMIC, upper-middle-income country.