Table 1

Adapted definitions of WASH and biosecurity for implementing the integrative approach: One Health WASH in settings where humans and animals interact closely

WASH componentsInterventions to address components across humans, animals, and the environmentBiosecurity components
WaterWater access: interventions to provide infrastructure or improve water distribution systems, or implement policies to ensure access to water for drinking or cleaning, safeguarding human and animal health and welfare. It may include strategies such as installing pumps, deposits, tanks, rainwater harvesting systems, or improving access to water channels in animal production systems.Bioexclusion
Water quality: Interventions to remove or inactivate pathogens ‘at source’ and ‘at point of use’ or the implementation of policies to ensure clean water for both humans and animals. These may include the application of treatments such as filtration, sedimentation, chemical treatment, chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) treatment of water, and interventions that improve drinking water through acidification or those that improve water quality in aquaculture.
AirAir quality: to prevent the dissemination of airborne pathogens between humans, animals and to/from humans. It may include implementing strategies to improve ventilation in the household and in animal dwellings.Biomanagement
SanitationSanitation infrastructure: to provide or implement infrastructure for the safe disposal of human waste to reduce access of animals or vectors to it. It may include interventions such as the installation of waste systems or the provision of sanitation facilities that consider the presence of animals in the surroundings.Biocontainment
Waste management: to establish strategies or policies to safely dispose of wastewater or fallen stock and/or treat animal or human faeces to be used as fertilisers, preventing the spread and dissemination of microbial threats to and from the environment. It may include interventions such as the installation of waste systems, composting methods, manure treatment, septic tanks, slurry treatment, rubbish management, disposal of biological waste, identification and isolation of animal defecation sites, construction of wetlands, or removal of fallen stock.
HygieneFood safety: introducing hygiene strategies to safely manage and store food products including of animal origin and animal feed, avoiding food cross-contamination. It may include improving food storage conditions, sterilisation, pasteurisation, and good butchering practices.Bioexclusion
Cleaning and disinfection: interventions to promote hygienic practices, implement protocols or enforce policies to facilitate good hygiene in the household, among individuals, and around animal dwellings, avoiding the introduction and spread of pathogens among humans and animals and the environment. It may include strategies such as providing equipment to facilitate farmers/producers/animal owner’s handwashing or showering in and out of animal facilities, use of disinfectants, cleaning of animal facilities, use of chemical products, use of high-pressure cleaners or sanitisers, educational interventions focusing on individual hygiene, or policies facilitating the implementation of such practices.Biomanagement
Other biosecurity measures not contemplated in traditional WASHBarrier implementation: to preserve boundaries, implement barriers or introduce policy strategies to limit exposure to microorganisms between animals,and humans and control potential vectors and fomites. It may include the installation of footbaths, corralling of animals, pest control, maintenance of pets and birds outside farming facilities, implementation of barriers to avoid contact with wildlife, farmworkers changing clothes, animal movement restrictions, restrictions of personnel entering animal facilities, quarantine, isolation protocols, implementation of vacancy periods of animal facilities, identification and containment of animal pooping spots, use of masks by people with respiratory infections, or use of protective equipment when handling animals or their fluids.Biocontainment
Health protection: to implement specialised strategies to boost immunity or manage infections in humans and animals or improve access to healthcare, ensuring wellness, welfare, and productivity for humans and animals. For humans, it could include improving access to vaccinations for children and deworming strategies in schools. For animals, it could consist of training farmers on safe animal handling, implementing McREBEL protocols or veterinary protocols to vaccinate or treat animals.Biomanagement
  • WASH, water, sanitation and hygiene.