Table 6

Total and subgroup meta-analyses for the pooled prevalence of depression and anxiety in children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic

Mental health outcomeGroupNumber of studiesPrevalence (95% CI)Heterogeneity
Tau2I2H2P value
DepressionTotal5032% (27 to 38)0.0499.89929.190.00
DepressionMale1332% (24 to 40)0.0299.57231.550.00
Female1337% (28 to 47)0.0399.72352.110.00
DepressionAmericas935% (20 to 50)0.0599.78444.980.00
Eastern Mediterranean372% (43 to 101)0.0799.56227.230.00
Europe635% (19 to 50)0.0499.24131.400.00
South-East Asia223% (19 to 27)0.0047.611.910.17
Western Pacific3028% (22 to 34)0.0399.89872.570.00
DepressionHIC1537% (26 to 47)0.0499.70330.430.00
LMIC3531% (23 to 38)0.0599.911166.090.00
AnxietyTotal5532% (27 to 37)0.0499.85662.780.00
AnxietyMale1628% (21 to 36)0.0299.55222.820.00
Female1635% (26 to 44)0.0399.68317.340.00
AnxietyAmericas832% (16 to 49)0.0699.76414.910.00
Eastern Mediterranean458% (29 to 88)0.0999.81536.750.00
Europe1044% (32 to 56)0.0499.30143.660.00
South-East Asia322% (17 to 26)0.0057.352.340.10
Western Pacific3026% (21 to 30)0.0199.73368.000.00
AnxietyHIC1940% (30 to 50)0.0599.73374.540.00
LMIC3628% (23 to 33)0.0399.83599.220.00
  • HIC, high-income country; LMIC, low- and middle-income country.