Table 3

Study characteristics and pooled prevalence for anxiety

StudyDiagnostic/Screening instrument usedPooled effect estimates
(95% CI)
Heterogeneity (I2)Total # of peopleTotal # of studiesAMSTAR 2 ratingImpact on MH
Racine et al19GAD-7; SCARED; CBCL; DASS-21; CAQ; HADS; Well-Being Index; SCAS-P-8; SAS and MHBQPooled prevalence=20.5%
(17 to 24)
99.27%70 70725LowNegative
Sajid et al20SASC in Zheng et al; STAI in Senkalfa et alSMD=1.1 (−1.43 to 3.63)98%16532Critically lowNegative
Ma et al21SCARED (n=5); GAD-7 (n=5); SAS; PQSPHE; MMHI-60Pooled prevalence=25.5%
(16.0 to 35.1)
99.9%42 43513LowUnclear
Panda et al28Specific study questionnaire (n=7); PHQ-9; GAD-7; IES-R; DSM-5; SCAS, CDI; STAI; CBCL; SCARED; Short Version of SAS; Coping Style Scale and Internet Addiction ScalePooled prevalence=34.5%
(33.8 to 35.1)
45%21 33011Critically lowNegative
Chai et al34DASS-21; SCL-90; SCARED; DSRS; MMHI-60; GAD-7; PSS-10; SCSQ; PHQ-9; CDI-SFFPooled prevalence=25%
(20 to 32)
99%22 8099LowNegative
  • CAQ, Child Anxiety Questionnaire; CBCL, Child Behaviour Checklist; CDI, Children’s Depression Inventory; CDI-SF, Short Form of CDI; DASS-21, Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale; DSM-5, The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5; DSRS, Depression Self-Rating Scale; GAD-7, General Anxiety Disorder-7; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; IES-R, Impact of Event Scale-Revised; MHBQ, MacArthur Health and Behaviour Questionnaire; MMHI-60, Mental Health Inventory of Middle-school Students-60; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PQSPHE, Psychological Questionnaire for Sudden Public Health Events; PSS-10, Perceived Stress Scale-10; SAS, Self-rating Anxiety Scale; SASC, Social Anxiety Scale for Children; SCARED, Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Disorders; SCAS, Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale; SCAS-P-8, SCAS-Parent Version; SCL-90, Symptom Checklist-90; SCSQ, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire; STAI, State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory.