Table 1

Participants recruited per site and phase (IDIs/FGDs)

Data collection phaseDRCNigeriaMadagascarMozambiqueTotal
KengeBulunguKundaOhaukwuAkure southBossoMananjaryToliary IIVohipenoNhamatandaMecontaMurrupula
I 2018155180N/A*8080N/A*4748N/A*104103N/A*797
II 2019175166207139138138677675N/A†75791335
III 2020615970535658484949363637612
IV 2021484747414849404242293028491
  • *Although TIPTOP was piloted in three areas per country, in the early phases of the study research activities were planned to be conducted only in two areas per country. In order to strengthen the scientific value of the results, the third project area was included in the study design after the first phase of data collection.

  • †No fieldwork was carried out in Nhamatanda in 2019 due to cyclone Idai.

  • DRC, Democratic Republic of Congo; FGDs, focus group discussions; IDIs, in-depth interviews ; NA, not available; TIPTOP, ransforming IPTp for Optimal Pregnancy.