Table 2

Pooled prevalence estimates of exposure to excessive noise from personal listening devices (PLDs)

Personal listening devices
Number, recordsEffect size (95% CI)Test of null (two-tailed)
Point estimateLower limitUpper limitP value
Pooled prevalence1723.81%18.99%29.42%<0.01
Age category
Income group
High income1324.51%19.35%30.53%<0.01
Middle income (upper+lower middle)422.12%7.15%51.17%<0.01
Risk criteria definition
Daily (LAeq >80 dB)312.95%5.10%29.20%<0.01
Daily (LAeq >85 dB)521.36%13.50%32.09%<0.01
Weekly (LAeq >80 dB)436.37%29.18%44.22%<0.01
  • Estimates are presented overall and stratified according to age, income level and risk criteria definition.

  • Adults (18–34 years), minors (12–19 years), mixed (12–34 years).

  • High income: ≥US$12 696 gross national income (GNI) per capita; middle-income (including low-middle and high-middle income countries): US$4096–12 695 GNI per capita, according to World Bank Income group classification FY22.23

  • *Studies specified duration of exposure and objectively measured intensity but did not explicitly state a standard permissible exposure limit.

  • LAeq, equivalent continuous sound pressure level is the constant noise level that would result in the same total sound energy being produced over a given period.