Table 1

Summary of the number and types of respondents

Informant category and gender break downAffiliation details and numbersInterview topics:
JKN authorities at national level
N=15 (5 females, 10 males)
BPJS Kesehatan: 7
National Social Security Council (DJSN): 3
Ministry of Health: 1
Founder of Lapor.go.id: 1
Ministry of State Apparatus Empowerment and Bureaucratic Reform: 3
  • Implementation of the formal patient navigation initiatives and related challenges.

  • Perception of JKN authorities toward informal patient navigators.

  • Motivation to engage with informal patient navigators.

  • Modes of interaction between JKN authorities and informal patient navigators.

  • JKN authorities’ responses to informal patient navigators input on JKN design and processes.

Navigators from BPJS Watch, Jamkeswatch and POSKO JKN-KIS
N=28 (1 female, 27 male)
BPJS Watch in Jakarta: 3
BPJS Watch-associate in Manado: 5
POSKO JKN-KIS in Bekasi: 2
Jamkeswatch
Jakarta: 1
Bekasi: 3
Karawang: 2
Mojokerto: 10
Manado: 1
Pasuruan: 1
  • Profile of informal patient navigators.

  • The factors shaping the emergence of informal patient navigators.

  • Services of informal patient navigators.

  • Motivation of informal patient navigators for providing and maintaining services.

  • Problems for patients and informal navigators in using formal patient navigation initiatives.

  • Modes of interaction between informal patient navigators and JKN authorities.

  • The extent to which informal patient navigator assistance increases patients’ abilities to access JKN services independently.

Health professionals
N=9 (2 female, 7 male)
Jakarta: 7
Manado: 2
  • Perception of health professionals on JKN implementation.

  • Modes of interaction between health professionals and informal patient navigators at health facilities.

Patients availing JKN benefits
N=18 (7 female, 11 male)
Jakarta: 4
Karawang: 2
Bekasi: 2
Mojokerto: 7
Manado: 3
  • Patients’ knowledge and awareness about the existence of informal patient navigations.

  • Issues affecting access to JKN services.

  • Patients’ experiences in using formal and informal patient navigation.

  • The extent to which informal patient navigator assistance. increases patients’ abilities to access JKN services independently.

  • BPJS, Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial; Jamkeswatch, Jaminan Kesehatan Watch; JKN, Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional; POSKO JKN-KIS, Pos Komando Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional – Kartu Indonesia Sehat.