Table 2

Failure frequency of antibiotics by outlet type in prevalence surveys

Outlet/SourceFailure frequency % (n/N)Data pointsCountries
Combination of outlets*18.3%
255Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Belize, Cambodia, Cameroon, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Estonia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Madagascar, Malawi, Mongolia, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Papua New Guinea, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, UK, Uzbekistan, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe
Government clinics/depots22.1% (44/199)8Cambodia, Cameroon, Myanmar, South Africa
Hospitals/Health centres4.8% (26/543)16Cameroon, India, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Tanzania, Ukraine, Zimbabwe
Internet4.3% (11/255)5India, USA
Private pharmacies15.7% (707/4510)120Argentina, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Cambodia, Cameroon, China, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guatemala, Honduras, India, Kenya, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malawi, Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Peru, Saudi Arabia, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, USA, Uruguay, Venezuela
Unknown†16.2% (51/315)12Bangladesh, Cambodia, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Thailand
Unregistered/Unlicensed outlets‡34.3% (210/613)36Cameroon, Côte d'Ivoire, India, Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Thailand
Wholesalers/Distributors19.3% (97/504)82Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Germany, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Nepal, Nigeria, South Africa, Tajikistan, Tanzania, Uganda, Viet Nam, Zimbabwe
  • *Nearly half of the surveys described several types of outlets where medicines were collected in the methods but did not present their results broken down by individual types of outlets.

  • †Four studies did not explicitly mention the outlets where samples were sourced.

  • ‡Includes unlicensed/unregistered market stalls, shops, ambulant sellers, etc.