Table 4

Costs (US$, 2017) per child modelled to 5 years and 10 years of age (base case)

Severe CZSModerate CZSNo CZS
Costs per child to the health provider/governmentCost per child (US$, 2017)Cost per child (US$, 2017)Cost per child (US$, 2017)
Cost of specialist/non-specialist visits to the health provider
 Modelled to 5 years of age1421.59685.21324.07
 Modelled to 10 years of age2859.771376.96480.98
Cost of hospitalisation to the health provider
 Modelled to 5 years of age3260.211156.03801.57
 Modelled to 10 years of age4132.431463.951032.43
Cost of other services to the health provider (eg, orthotics and prosthetics)
 Modelled to 5 years of age4501.51167.660.00
 Modelled to 10 years of age5718.67213.250.00
Cost of diagnostic tests, physical examinations and drugs to the health provider
 Modelled to 5 years of age1504.64999.51646.06
 Modelled to 10 years of age2327.931920.17911.44
Cost of wheelchair to the health provider
 Modelled to 5 years of age672.4341.040.82
 Modelled to 10 years of age1236.1775.461.51
Cost of education to the government
 Modelled to 5 years of age2580.582580.581103.99
 Modelled to 10 years of age8316.228316.225883.69
Cost of disability allowance to the government
 Modelled to 5 years of age13 762.09n/an/a
 Modelled to 10 years of age24 659.20n/an/a
Total costs per child to the health provider/government
Total cost per child to the health provider
 Modelled to 5 years of age11 360.383049.451772.52
 Modelled to 10 years of age16 274.975049.782426.36
Total cost per child to the government (incl. disability allowance if applicable and education)
 Modelled to 5 years of age27 703.055630.032876.51
 Modelled to 10 years of age49 250.3913 366.008310.05
Costs per child to the household (detail)
Out of pocket costs of visits (and other)
 Modelled to 5 years of age4929.323941.46826.62
 Modelled to 10 years of age9909.547923.641230.41
Out of pocket costs of hospitalisation
 Modelled to 5 years of age482.71125.82518.65
 Modelled to 10 years of age610.94159.24666.66
Out of pocket costs of drugs/vitamins
 Modelled to 5 years of age2370.771010.460.00
 Modelled to 10 years of age4575.331950.080.00
Out of pocket costs of tests
 Modelled to 5 years of age63.310.000.00
 Modelled to 10 years of age122.190.000.00
Out of pocket cost of healthcare plan
 Modelled to 5 years of age922.761081.82555.82
 Modelled to 10 years of age1653.421938.43995.92
Out of pocket cost of moving and altering house as well as cost of coping
 Modelled to 5 years of age559.73299.730.00
 Modelled to 10 years of age559.73299.730.00
Out of pocket cost of wheelchair (adaptation) and visual aids
 Modelled to 5 years of age3107.27192.073.41
 Modelled to 10 years of age5549.02341.876.27
Out of pocket cost of special food
 Modelled to 5 years of age1039.17385.280.00
 Modelled to 10 years of age1039.17385.280.00
Cost of income forgone
 Modelled to 5 years of age1247.891716.57772.61
 Modelled to 10 years of age1912.882918.481121.56
Total costs per child to the household
Total cost per child to the household
 Modelled to 5 years of age14 722.928753.212677.11
 Modelled to 10 years of age25 932.2315 916.744020.83
Total net cost per child to the household (disability benefit deducted)
 Modelled to 5 years of age960.838753.212677.11
 Modelled to 10 years of age1273.0315 916.744020.83
Total cost per child to the household excluding income forgone
 Modelled to 5 years of age13 475.047036.641904.50
 Modelled to 10 years of age24 019.3512 998.272899.27
Total costs per child to the society
Total net cost per child to society
 Modelled to 5 years of age28 663.8814 383.245553.62
 Modelled to 10 years of age50 523.4229 282.7512 330.88
  • The costs per child (US$, 2017) for severe CZS, moderate CZS and no CZS by time horizon (to 5 years and 10 years of age) are shown in this table using the results from the base case analysis. Detailed cost per child by cost category as well as total cost by perspective (health provider, government, household and societal) are shown. The net cost to the household means that the disability benefit provided by the government to families of children with severe CZS was deducted from the household cost. This net cost to the household was used when estimating the societal cost to avoid double counting. It only applies to children with severe CZS; for moderate CZS and no CZS children the net cost to the household is the same as the cost to the household, as they do not receive a disability benefit. The same results from the probabilistic sensitivity analysis can be found in the online supplemental appendix table S2.

  • CZS, congenital Zika Syndrome.