Table 3

Input estimates—cost estimates measured in study

Severe CZSModerate CZSNo CZS
Health provider costs per year (Rio de Janeiro)*†
Cost of specialist/non-specialist visits to the health providerMean/SEMean/SEMean/SE
 Year 1 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)258.4, 19.7151.3, 19.0128.3, 8.0
 Year 2 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)275.4, 16.0135.7, 18.578.9, 6.8
 Year 3 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)326.1, 122.2126.6, 85.414.0, 5.1
Cost of hospitalisation to the health provider
 Year 1 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)1098.6, 250.1494.9, 360.9189.1, 67.7
 Year 2 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)3.3, 1.10.0, 0.048.6, 35.5
 Year 3 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)1282.7, 816.6346.9, 245.1351.0, 217.9
Cost of other services to the health provider (eg, orthotics and prosthetics)
 Year 1 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)272.9, 67.70.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 2 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)256.0, 70.80.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 3 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)2798.7, 135.9124.6, 12.50.0, 0.0
Cost of diagnostic tests, physical examinations and drugs to the health provider
 Year 1 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)638.7, 54.4277.7, 51.1304.5, 25.6
 Year 2 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)342.8, 42.5325.6, 55.3194.2, 21.4
 Year 3 US$, 2017 (mean, SE)181.1, 88.44.2, 4.250.5, 32.0
Out of pocket costs to the household per year (Rio de Janeiro, Recife)*‡
Irregular costs to the household
Cost of moving house/relocation due to disability of child
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)10.1, 5.74.7, 4.70.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)2.3, 4.822.2, 20.30.0, 0.0
Cost of altering house due to disability of child
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)37.8, 17.70.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)69.1, 15.535.4, 24.90.0, 0.0
Cost of coping§ with change due to disability of child
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)261.4, 138.7117.6, 92.30.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)179.1, 51.0119.8, 72.50.0, 0.0
Cost of special food for child (mostly special formula milk)
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)475.6, 79.0124.1, 95.50.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)563.6, 67.7261.1, 105.40.0, 0.0
Regular costs to the household (to be modelled beyond 2 years)
Cost of visits (includes transport, fuel, etc)
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)1087.7, 207.01202.8, 349.0186.2, 40.3
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)787.9, 157.0384.5, 175.4193.2, 33.8
Cost of hospitalisation
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)85.7, 29.331.3, 31.3241.5, 229.3
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)148.0, 68.929.6, 16.810.1, 4.6
Cost of healthcare plan (average of both years to be modelled)
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)218.3, 53.594.0, 94.080.3, 29.2
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)172.4, 33.4364.0, 112.7155.1, 28.3
Cost of drugs and vitamins (mostly epilepsy drugs)
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)374.7, 73.7205.0, 86.30.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)595.2, 77.6208.4, 58.50.0, 0.0
Cost of visual aids for child (modelled for years 1–5, year 7 and year 9)
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)55.5, 10.90.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)76.9, 12.59.1, 6.40.0, 0.0
Cost of tests
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)13.7, 6.70.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)12.2, 4.60.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
Other direct costs to the household
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)36.5, 18.80.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)73.0, 21.00.0, 0.00.0, 0.0
Indirect cost of lost household income due to visits, appointments
 Year 1 (age 0–1 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)722.2, 263.9766.5, 513.8222.2, 62.5
 Year 2 (age 1–2 years) US$, 2017 (mean, SE)132.5, 60.6239.5, 129.3163.9, 43.2
  • Table 3 shows cost parameters to the health provider and household estimated in the costing analysis. Costs are shown for each cost category (eg, cost of hospitalisation) by year (year 1–3 for health provider costs and year 1–2 for household costs) and group (severe CZS, moderate CZS and no CZS). The first value represents the mean and the second represents the SE.

  • *Distribution used in the model for all provider and household costs was the gamma distribution.

  • †Source for all provider costs was healthcare utilisation data: Rio de Janeiro.27

  • ‡Source for all household costs were the cross-sectional surveys conducted in Rio de Janeiro and Recife.

  • §The cost of coping includes selling of assets and borrowing money to cope with the additional costs incurred because of having child with CZS.

  • CZS, congenital Zika Syndrome; SE, Standard error.