Table 1

Characteristics of survey respondents and exposure of community health workers to CAS, endline survey

VariablesMPBihar
ComparisonInterventionComparisonIntervention
NMean (SD)*NMean (SD)*NMean (SD)*NMean (SD)*
Individual characteristics†
 Beneficiary’s age (in completed years)202124.0 (3.86)224523.9 (3.61)238424.3 (4.27)238324.7 (4.65)
 Beneficiary’s education (in years)20215.3 (4.43)22455.5 (4.28)23824.5 (4.81)23494.0 (4.67)
 Beneficiary works to earn income202125.7%224525.4%23848.8%238311.1%
 Beneficiary finds it easy to reach the AWC202183.1%224581.7%238476.4%238379.1%
 Beneficiary has an Aadhar card202197.8%224597.3%238496.6%238396.4%
 Beneficiary owns a bank account202190.9%224590.1%238484.1%238387.0%
 Number of pregnancies in beneficiary’s lifetime20212.4 (1.50)22452.3 (1.40)23842.7 (1.64)23832.9 (1.73)
Household Characteristics†
 Household belongs to scheduled castes/tribes202155.9%224551.1%238436.0%238336.6%
 House is of pucca construction202133.2%224538.0%238452.7%238346.5%
 No of rooms used for sleeping in the house20212.1 (1.00)22452.1 (1.09)23842.2 (1.31)23832.1 (1.30)
 Household owns agricultural land202174.0%224570.7%238442.8%238340.5%
 House has a functional toilet202173.8%224561.9%238436.9%238347.9%
CHNW Characteristics‡
 CHNW’s age35338.1 (8.71)33139.7 (9.15)29439.3 (8.93)33937.7 (7.03)
 CHNW’s education (in years)35310.6 (3.78)33110.9 (3.47)29411.5 (2.1)33911.8 (2.03)
 CHNW belongs to a schedules caste/tribe35358.6%33147.7%29415.0%33920.1%
 Number of years of experience as CHNW35314.3 (7.97)33115.7 (8.58)29415.6 (9.22)33912.2 (5.04)
 CHNW owns a smartphone35332.6%331100.0%29459.2%33994.7%
 CHNW is trained in seven topics under ISSNIP35375.4%33174.6%29453.1%33951.9%
 CHNW has frequent interactions with LS35349.9%33153.5%29460.5%33954.6%
 CHNW reported problems with THR supply35312.5%3317.3%29435.7%33953.4%
Characteristics of AWC‡§
 Population covered by the AWC310698.1303829.12221081.83121024.0
 AWC has pucca construction35380.5%33190.6%29458.2%33949.9%
 AWC has drinking water on premises35265.9%32967.8%28849.3%32349.5%
 AWC has toilet on premises35252.8%32948.6%28818.4%32324.2%
 AWC has functional child weighing scale35384.4%33183.4%29475.9%33983.5%
 AWC has growth charts for children35345.6%33150.2%29438.4%33935.4%
Exposure of CHNWs to ICDS-CAS Intervention‡
 Received training on using App33197.9%33997.9%
 CHNWs own a smart phone331100.0%33994.7%
 CHNWs who reported carrying their phone during home visits in the last 30 days33199.1%33988.2%
 CHNWs who reported that they always showed the App content/messages to beneficiaries during home visits in the last 30 days33168.6%33969.9%
  • *For continuous variables mean and SD are reported. For binary variables percentage is reported.

  • †Based on self-report from beneficiary surveys.

  • ‡Based on self-report from CHNW surveys.

  • §Infrastructure at AWC was assessed as per the observations by enumerators.

  • AWC, Anganwadi centre; CAS, Common Application Software; CHNW, community health and nutrition worker; ICDS, Integrated Child Development Service; ISSNIP, ICDS Systems Strengthening and Nutrition Improvement Programme.