Table 2

Infant and young child feeding and family planning practices in four districts of Madhya Pradesh

DescriptionWomen’s endline survey (n=4423)
Prevalence across study armsIntention to treatPrevalence across exposed versus not exposed groupsInstrumental variable
Int.Comp.DifferenceRRs95% CIP valueExposedNot exposedDifferenceCATE95% CIP value
Family planning method use
Reversible method use since birth of child33.730.03.681.121.03 to 1.210.00738.531.17.401.721.06 to 2.770.028
Condom26.723.82.871.121.01 to 1.230.02430.624.66.001.760.94 to 3.310.077
 Contraceptive pill4. to 1.690.
IUCD3. to 1.480.673.83.10.721.200.40 to 3.630.74
Injectable method1. to 1.780.653.21.51.771.270.46 to 3.480.64
Emergency contraceptive pill0.340.53(0.19)0.610.26 to 1.410.250.00.5(0.49)
Sterilised (male or female) since birth of child12.914.9(2.00)0.850.74 to 0.970.01611.914.1(2.20)0.560.37 to 0.850.006
Current use of family planning69.169.7(0.62)0.980.95 to 1.020.4170.869.21.600.930.79 to 1.090.39
Ever used 1+ contraception methods since birth of child60.358.41.851.030.97 to 1.090.4164.958. to 1.680.33
Unmet need for family planning
Women who could not get a method due to no stock6. to 1.320.684.16.4(2.32)1.540.12 to 19.200.74
Breast feeding
Immediate breast feeding68.371.7(3.45)0.960.92 to 1.000.02767.770.6(2.90)0.910.85 to 0.990.025
Immediate breast feeding: normal delivery72.175.1(3.02)0.960.93 to 1.000.05271.399.4(28.10)0.930.85 to 1.010.10
Ever breastfed99.399.6(0.34)1.000.99 to 1.000.1399.499.40.990.97 to 1.000.13
Never fed child <6 months janam ghutti, water, honey, animal milk, formula milk, jaifal or tea11.310.60.711.070.91 to 1.260.4014.010.53.501.210.72 to 2.040.48
Exclusive breast feeding*10.810.40.361.040.88 to 1.230.6413.410.13.301.100.67 to 1.810.71
Gave breastmilk in the previous 24 hours95.696.1(0.50)1.000.98 to 1.010.4795.695.8(0.20)0.980.92 to 1.040.47
Complementary feeding
Child fed non-breastmilk before the child was 6 months of age10.310.6(0.25)0.990.83 to 1.170.879.010.7(1.68)0.970.50 to 1.870.92
Introduced children to thicker foods at the age of 6 months72.371.70.651.010.97 to 1.050.6674.771. to 1.170.67
Infant feeding
Gave child solid or semisolid food yesterday98.998. to 1.010.6898.898.9(0.10)1.010.98 to 1.040.68
Not yet giving child solid or semisolid food at time of interview0. to 3.170.310.20.8(0.54)NANANA
Added oil/ghee to child’s food yesterday42.941. to 1.110.2844.941. to 1.410.30
Feeding frequency† to 1.060.7259.358.70.601.040.82 to 1.310.74
Minimum meal frequency‡58.657.60.991.010.96 to 1.060.6858.758.00.701.050.83 to 1.330.70
Dietary diversity*§49.749.30.421.020.96 to 1.080.5452.649.13.501.090.82 to 1.460.56
Child a minimum acceptable diet31.929.91.981.070.98 to 1.170.1334.830.44.401.310.88 to 1.950.18
Fed dal ka pani (contraindicated)32.932.00.941.040.95 to 1.130.3733.532. to 1.600.39
Iron folate
Gave child iron syrup yesterday3. to 1.470.653.43.4(0.06)1.380.37 to 5.140.63
Gave child iron rich diet yesterday86.587.1(0.56)1.000.98 to 1.020.8386.886.80.990.89 to 1.100.82
  • *Reported exclusive breast feeding in the first 6 months and have never fed their children janam ghutti, water, honey, animal milk, formula milk, jaifal or tea in the first 6 months of life.

  • †Fed child five times or more in the last 24 hours.

  • ‡Child received solid, semisolid or soft foods the minimum number of times or more acording to Kilkari during the previous day.

  • §Child fed at least 1 food from 4 or more of the food groups.

  • CATE, compliance adjusted treatment effects; CF, complementary feeding; Diff, difference; FLHW, frontline health worker; FP, family planning; Int., intervention; IUCD, intrauterine contraceptive device; RR, relative risk.