Table 1

Sample sociodemographic characteristics, HIV vulnerability and protective factors by gender (N=445)

VariablesFull sample (N=445)
N (%)/mean (SD, range)
Adolescent boys and young men (N=112)
N (%)/mean (SD, range)
Adolescent girls and young women (N=333)
N (%)/mean (SD, range)
P value
Age*19.59 (2.59, 16–24)19.31 (2.56, 16–24)20.45 (2.51, 16–24)0.237
Education†0.001***
 Less than secondary school234 (52.6)44 (39.3)190 (57.1)
 Secondary school education211 (47.4)68 (60.7)143 (42.9)
Place of birth†0.001***
 South Sudan35 (7.9)5 (4.5)30 (9.0)
 Burundi115 (25.8)4 (3.6)111 (33.3)
 Democratic Republic of Congo249 (56.0)96 (85.7)153 (45.9)
 Rwanda19 (4.3)0 (0.0)19 (5.7)
 Others27 (6.1)7 (6.3)20 (6.0)
Immigration status (n=442)†0.001***
 Refugee391 (88.5)86 (76.8)305 (92.4)
 Seeking asylum51 (11.5)26 (23.2)25 (7.6)
Employment status (n=428)†0.243
 Employed/student252 (58.9)51 (53.7)201 (60.4)
 Unemployed176 (41.1)44 (46.3)132 (39.6)
Food insecurity†0.723
 No125 (28.1)30 (26.8)95 (28.5)
 Yes320 (71.9)82 (73.2)238 (71.5)
Protective factors
Resilience*12.05 (4.27, 4–20)13.42 (3.67, 4–20)11.59 (4.37, 4–20)0.001***
Family social support*11.45 (2.45, 4–16)11.51 (1.90, 4–16)11.43 (2.61, 4–16)0.767
Friends’ social support*10.80 (2.04, 4–16)11.12 (1.62, 4–16)10.69 (2.15, 4–16)0.029*
Significant other social support*10.91 (2.55, 4–16)11.51 (1.90, 4–16)10.75 (2.73, 4–16)0.006**
HIV vulnerability
Past 12-month transactional sex engagement (n=412)†0.001***
 No284 (58.9)46 (52.3)234 (73.1)
 Yes128 (31.1)42 (47.7)86 (26.9)
Recent (past 3-month) multiple sex partners (n=251)†0.466
 No85 (33.9)23 (37.7)62 (32.6)
 Yes166 (66.1)38 (62.3)128 (67.4)
  • *p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • *Independent t-test.

  • †Χ2 test for independence.