Table 4

Neonatal and maternal health outcomes and caesarean delivery

7-day death28-day deathPostpartum complication (bleeding)Postpartum complication (fever)
Panel A. First stage (dependent variable: caesarean delivery)
Cum. perc. of treated pop.0.0397*0.0397*0.0319†0.0319†
Panel B. Second stage IV (dependent variable: neonatal and maternal health outcomes)
Caesarean delivery−0.1589−0.10880.4731−0.8079
Mean fraction caesarean delivery0.10380.10380.12000.1200
Mean fraction health outcome0.02620.03140.18860.1612
  • Note: Each column in each panel lists estimates from separate regressions. All regressions control for month of birth, year of birth, town fixed effects, neonate characteristics (if the birth is a multiple birth, the sex of the neonate, if the birth is the birth and birth order), mother characteristics (age at delivery (categorical variable), education level (categorical variable), using modern contraceptives, being insured, smoking behaviour, BMI, having a previous miscarriage, abortion and stillbirth, religion, if the mother belongs to a caste and tribe), and household characteristics (wealth index, if the household has electricity). The F-statistic corresponds to a test of significance of the instrumental variable. The instrumental variable is the cumulative percentage of treated population (population that gained access to a paved road) in a town. Robust SEs clustered at the town level are shown in parentheses.

  • *Significant at the 1 percentage level.

  • †Significant at the 5 percentage level.

  • BMI, body mass index.