Table 1

Descriptive characteristics of included articles

n(%)
N=1751
GEMLR category
Emergency Care in Resource-Limited Settings (ECRLS)1208 (69.0)
Disaster and Humanitarian Relief (DHR)279 (15.9)
Emergency Medicine Development (EMD)264 (15.1)
Publication language other than English*56 (3.2)
Region of study’s focus†
Sub-Saharan African (AFR)857 (48.9)
South-East Asia (SEAR)364 (20.8)
Eastern Mediterranean (EMR)291 (16.6)
Europe and Central Asia (EUR)266 (15.2)
Americas (AMR)200 (11.4)
Western Pacific (WPR)169 (9.7)
World Bank Classification of Study Country(s)
Low-income country(s) only394 (22.5)
Lower middle-income country(s) only796 (45.5)
Upper middle-income country(s) only414 (23.6)
Multiple income categories147 (8.4)
Study main topic‡
Infectious diseases477 (27.2)
Trauma/injury383 (21.9)
Pre-hospital care/EMS¶133 (7.6)
Education117 (6.7)
Disaster/ humanitarian/refugee health118 (6.7)
Paediatrics99 (5.7)
Maternal health/OB-GYN§53 (3.0)
Mental health32 (1.8)
Ultrasound26 (1.5)
Other313 (17.9)
Study design
Cross-sectional419 (23.9)
Prospective cohort318 (18.2)
Retrospective cohort301 (17.2)
Qualitative193 (11.0)
Descriptive/quality improvement173 (9.8)
Randomised controlled trial8 (4.9)
Case–control49 (2.8)
Other212 (12.1)
Number of study countries
11575 (90.0)
2–5108 (6.2)
6–932 (1.8)
10 or more36 (2.1)
Authors per study: median (IQR)7 (5-10)
  • *Publication language of abstract and/or full-text).

  • †As there were 176 articles reporting work conducted in >1 country, there were multiple WHO regions possible so the total does not add to 100%.

  • ‡Note: articles may have had topics not captured on this list or had multiple topics.

  • §OB-GYN: obstetrics and gynaecology

  • ¶EMS: emergency medical services