Table 1

Individual, community, healthcare characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 cases in DKI Jakarta, 2 March 2020 to 31 August 2021

Total n=705 503Deceased n=10 797Recovered n=694 706P value
Individual-level characteristics
Median age (IQR), years36 (24–50)59 (50–68)35 (24–49)<0.0001
Age group, years<0.0001
0–421 793 (3.1%)47 (0.4%)21 746 (3.1%)
5–923 070 (3.3%)16 (0.2%)23 054 (3.3%)
10–1966 514 (9.4%)72 (0.7%)66 514 (9.4%)
20–29149 267 (21.2%)311 (2.9%)148 956 (21.4%)
30–39146 900 (20.8%)692 (6.4%)146 208 (21.1%)
40–49121 454 (17.2%)1455 (13.5%)119 999 (17.2%)
50–5998 934 (14.0%)3115 (28.9%)95 819 (13.8%)
60–6952 776 (7.5%)2827 (26.2%)49 949 (7.2%)
≥7024 761 (3.5%)2261 (20.9%)22 500 (3.2%)
Sex<0.0001
Female364 133 (51.6%)4810 (44.6%)359 323 (51.7%)
Male341 370 (48.4%)5987 (55.4%)335 383 (48.3%)
Hospitalised<0.0001
No472 478 (67.0%)105 (1.0%)427 373 (68.0%)
Yes233 025 (33.0%10 692 (99.0%)222 333 (32.0%)
Comorbidities<0.0001
Absent288 228 (40.9%)2754 (25.5%)285 474 (41.1%)
Present4974 (0.7%)468 (4.3%)4506 (0.7%)
Unknown412 301 (58.4%)7575 (70.2%)404 726 (58.3%)
Period of time<0.0001
First wave321 734 (46.3%)6107 (57.1%)315 627 (46.2%)
Second wave372 688 (53.7%)4585 (42.9%)368 103 (53.8%)
Subdistrict-level characteristics*
Sociodemographics
Population density, population/km2<0.0001
Q1 (<14 093)157 561 (22.4%)2164 (20.1%)155 397 (22.4%)
Q2 (14 093–17,092)199 848 (28.4%)2939 (27.3%)196 909 (28.4%)
Q3 (17 092–22,578)194 519 (27.6%)3154 (29.2%)191 365 (27.6%)
Q4 (22 578–50,829)152 557 (21.6%)2529 (23.4%)150 028 (21.6%)
Poverty, %<0.0001
Q1 (0.2–1.5)199 916 (28.4%)2717 (25.2%)197 199 (28.4%)
Q2 (1.5–2.1)156 153 (22.1%)2614 (24.2%)153 539 (22.1%)
Q3 (2.1–3.6)173 167 (24.6%)2712 (25.2%)170 455 (24.6%)
Q4 (3.6–8.8)175 249 (24.9%)2743 (25.4%)172 506 (24.9%)
Poor sanitation areas, %0.135
Q1 (0–47.9)181 868 (25.8%)2747 (25.5%)179 121 (25.8%)
Q2 (47.9–59.9)191 093 (27.2%)2846 (26.4%)188 247 (27.2%)
Q3 (59.9–63.8)158 002 (22.4%)2464 (22.8%)155 538 (22.4%)
Q4 (63.8–89.2)173 522 (24.6%)2729 (25.3%)170 793 (24.6%)
Healthcare capacity
Doctor–population ratio, doctor per 10 000 population0.158
Q1 (2.6–5.2)177 254 (25.2%)2, 680 (24.8%)174 574 (25.2%)
Q2 (5.2–7.9)191 918 (27.2%)3012 (27.9%)188 906 (27.2%)
Q3 (7.9–9.9)166 147 (23.6%)2467 (22.9%)163 680 (23.6%)
Q4 (9.9–74.8)169 166 (24.0%)2627 (24.4%)166 539 (24.0%)
Nurse–population ratio, nurse per 10 000 population0.007
Q1 (2.9–11.2)185 251 (26.3%)2755 (25.5%)182 496 (26.3%)
Q2 (11.2–22.8)161 767 (23.0%)2553 (23.7%)159 214 (23.0%)
Q3 (22.8–83.9)176 863 (25.1%)2611 (24.2%)174 252 (25.1%)
Q4 (83.9–416.1)180 604 (25.6%)2867 (26.6%)177 737 (25.6%)
COVID-19 vaccination coverage, %<0.0001
Q1 (33.0–36.1)190 502 (27.0%)3254 (30.2%)187 248 (27.0%)
Q2 (36.1–38.5)164 821 (23.4%)2662 (24.7%)162 159 (23.4%)
Q3 (38.5–40.5)172 210 (24.5%)2358 (21.8%)169 852 (24.5%)
Q4 (40.5–50.0)176 952 (25.1%)2512 (23.3%)174 440 (25.1%)
Universal child immunisation coverage, %<0.0001
Q1 (94.5–96.2)180 820 (25.7%)2682 (24.9%)178 138 (25.7%)
Q2 (96.2–98.0)191 987 (27.2%)2862 (26.5%)189 125 (27.2%)
Q3 (98.0–98.9)155 023 (22.0%)2586 (24.0%)152 437 (22.0%)
Q4 (98.9–100.0)173 999 (25.1%)2656 (24.6%)173 999 (25.1%)
Health-related characteristics
Prevalence of hypertension, %0.490
Q1 (4.2–7.1)173 268 (24.6%)2693 (25.0%)170 575 (24.6%)
Q2 (7.1–8.7)203 932 (29.0%)3127 (29.0%)200 805 (28.9%)
Q3 (8.7–13.6)145 395 (20.6%)2165 (20.0%)143 230 (20.7%)
Q4 (13.6–33.0)181 890 (25.8%)2801 (26.0%)179 089 (25.8%)
Prevalence of diabetes, %<0.0001
Q1 (0.6–1.3)188 051 (26.0%)2934 (27.2%)180 117 (26.0%)
Q2 (1.3–2.1)160 975 (22.9%)2284 (21.2%)158 691 (22.9%)
Q3 (2.1–3.2)176 348 (25.0%)2682 (24.9%)173 666 (25.0%)
Q4 (3.2–5.4)184 111 (26.1%)2886 (26.7%)181 225 (26.1%)
Prevalence of tuberculosis, %<0.0001
Q1 (0.1–0.2)181 457 (25.8%)2504 (23.2%)178 953 (25.8%)
Q2 (0.2–0.3)188 309 (26.7%)2865 (26.6%)185 444 (26.7%)
Q3 (0.3–0.5)171 319 (24.3%)2741 (25.4%)168 578 (24.3%)
Q4 (0.5–2.4)163 400 (23.2%)2676 (24.8%)160 724 (23.2%)
All-cause mortality per 1000 under 5 years old population<0.0001
Q1 (0.8–2.1)201 666 (28.6%)3167 (29.4%)198 499 (28.6%)
Q2 (2.1–2.6)137 785 (19.6%)2054 (19.0%)135 731 (19.6%)
Q3 (2.6–4.0)204 265 (29.0%)2872 (26.6%)201 393 (29.0%)
Q4 (4.0–6.3)160 769 (22.8%)2693 (25.0%)158 076 (22.8%)
  • First wave: March 2020 to April 2021, second wave: May 2021 to August 2021.

  • *Numeric values were categorised into quarters (Q), that is, below 25th percentile (lowest), 25th–50th percentile (Q2), 50th–75th percentile (Q3) and above 75th percentile (highest) for each subdistrict-level variable.

  • DKI, Daerah Khusus Ibukota.