Table 2

Bivariable analysis of individual, community and healthcare risk factors associated with COVID-19 mortality in DKI Jakarta, 2 March 2020 to 31 August 2021

Crude OR (95% CI)P value
Individual-level factors
Age group, years
0–41.03 (0.76 to 1.40)0.836
5–90.33 (0.20 to 0.55)<0.0001
10–190.52 (0.40 to 0.67)<0.0001
20–291 (ref)
30–392.27 (1.99 to 2.60)<0.0001
40–495.81 (5.14 to 6.57)<0.0001
50–5915.59 (13.86 to 17.52)<0.0001
60–6927.26 (24.23 to 30.67)<0.0001
≥7049.18 (43.63 to 55.43)<0.0001
Sex
Female1 (ref)
Male1.34 (1.28 to 1.39)<0.0001
Comorbidities
Present10.75 (9.70 to 11.91)<0.0001
Absent1 (ref)
Period of time
First wave1.55 (1.49 to 1.61)<0.0001
Second wave1 (ref)
Sociodemographics
Population density
Lowest1 (ref)
Q21.06 (0.96 to 1.18)0.229
Q31.16 (1.04 to 1.28)0.007
Highest1.20 (1.08 to 1.33)0.001
Poverty level
Lowest1 (ref)
Q21.21 (1.09 to 1.34)<0.0001
Q31.15 (1.04 to 1.27)0.006
Highest1.15 (1.04 to 1.27)0.005
Proportion of poor sanitation areas
Lowest1 (ref)
Q20.98 (0.87 to 1.10)0.744
Q31.15 (1.04 to 1.27)0.526
Highest1.15 (1.04 to 1.27)0.664
Healthcare capacity
Vaccination coverage
Lowest1.20 (1.09 to 1.31)<0.0001
Q21.14 (1.04 to 1.24)0.005
Q30.96 (0.88 to 1.06)0.423
Highest1 (ref)
Doctor–population ratio
Lowest0.97 (0.87 to 1.10)0.691
Q21.01 (0.90 to 1.12)0.899
Q30.95 (0.85 to 1.07)0.433
Highest1 (ref)
Nurse–population ratio
Lowest0.94 (0.84 to 1.05)0.292
Q20.99 (0.88 to 1.11)0.831
Q30.94 (0.84 to 1.05)0.278
Highest1 (ref)
Universal child immunisation
Lowest1.00 (0.90 to 1.12)0.980
Q21.10 (0.97 to 1.24)0.131
Q31.03 (0.92 to 1.15)0.666
Highest1 (ref)
Health-related characteristics
Prevalence of hypertension
Lowest1 (ref)
Q20.97 (0.86 to 1.09)0.628
Q30.97 (0.86 to 1.10)0.685
Highest1.00 (0.89 to 1.12)0.999
Prevalence of diabetes
Lowest1 (ref)
Q20.89 (0.80 to 1.01)0.292
Q30.96 (0.86 to 1.07)0.831
Highest0.97 (0.86 to 1.08)0.278
Prevalence of tuberculosis
Lowest1 (ref)
Q21.10 (0.99 to 1.22)0.078
Q31.12 (1.00 to 1.25)0.044
Highest1.18 (1.06 to 1.31)0.003
All-cause mortality among under 5 years old population
Lowest1 (ref)
Q20.95 (0.86 to 1.06)0.398
Q30.90 (0.82 to 1.00)0.045
Highest1.07 (0.96 to 1.19)0.209
  • First wave=March 2020 to April 2021. Second wave=May 2021 to August 2021. Numeric values were categorised into quarters (Q), that is, below 25th percentile (Lowest), 25th–50th percentile (Q2), 50th–75th percentile (Q3) and above 75th percentile (highest) for each subdistrict level variable.

  • DKI, Daerah Khusus Ibukota; OR, odds ratio.