Table 1

Coding guides for analysis of owned media and user-generated content on TikTok

CodeDescription
Owned media
BrandingWhether branding, such as logos, colours, fonts, trademarks or slogans is present, including branding in product images and branded effects (see below)
Product imagesWhether product images are present, including packaged product images and unpackaged product images where the product is clearly identifiable as the brand’s product
Branded effectsWhether a branded effect (eg, stickers, filters or special effects that feature the brand and appear within TikTok for users to add to videos) is present
Corporate social responsibility or philanthropyWhether a statement of an ethical or sustainability standpoint or initiative or partnership with a charity is present
Celebrities/influencersWhether anyone with a media profile or a verified badge (indicating that TikTok has confirmed the account belongs to the user it represents), excluding professional sportspeople, is present
SportspeopleWhether a professional sportsperson is present
Children’s charactersWhether a third-party cartoon or character is present
Branded charactersWhether a cartoon or character developed by the brand is present
Price promotionsWhether a price promotion (eg, promotion of regular prices or promotions of limited time offers, discount menus, 2 for 1 deals) is present
CompetitionsWhether a competition is promoted
EngagementWhether interaction or conversation is promoted, including promotion of hashtag challenges
Branded hashtag challengesWhether a branded hashtag challenge is promoted
Sponsorships or partnershipsWhether a statement of sponsorship or partnership with an event, other brand or organisation is present, excluding any already captured by ‘Corporate social responsibility or philanthropy’
User-generated content
BrandingWhether branding, such as logos, colours, fonts, trademarks or slogans is present, including branding in product images and branded effects (see below)
Product imagesWhether product images are present, including packaged product images and unpackaged product images where the product is clearly identifiable as the brand’s product
Branded effectsWhether a branded effect (eg, stickers, filters or special effects that feature the brand and appear within TikTok for users to add to videos) is present
Positive sentimentWhether the video portrays a positive sentiment (eg, through video content or positive text, emojis or hashtags in the caption)
Negative sentimentWhether the video portrays a negative sentiment (eg, through video content or negative text, emojis or hashtags in the caption)
Neutral/unclear sentimentWhether the video portrays a neutral or unclear sentiment
  • Adapted from Vassallo et al and Laestadius et al.18 21