Table 1

Cohort parameters for epidemiological, educational and economic outcomes associated with adolescent mental disorders

MeasureBase valueMin. valueMax. value
Incidence*
 Number of depressive episodes per year among people with any form of bipolar disorder( 74 ) 0.960.831.10
 Number of (hypo)manic depressive episodes per year among people any form of bipolar disorder( 74 ) 0.940.781.10
 Proportion of people with major depressive disorder within the past 12 months that also reported anxiety within the past 12 months( 9 75 ) 0.420.300.90
 Proportion of people with lifetime anxiety and depression that reported same time of onset of symptoms( 9 ) 0.190.110.24
 Proportion of people with anxiety who display symptoms of depression( 75 ) 0.620.200.85
 Pooled relative risk of suicide due to depression( 64 ) 19.909.5041.70
 Pooled relative risk of suicide due to bipolar disorder( 64 ) 5.702.6012.40
 Pooled relative risk of suicide due to anxiety( 64 ) 2.701.704.30
Disability weights( 16 )†
 Disability weight for mild anxiety0.030.020.05
 Disability weight for moderate anxiety0.130.090.19
 Disability weight for severe anxiety0.520.360.68
 Disability weight for euthymia during bipolar disorder0.030.020.05
 Disability weight for a depressive episode of bipolar disorder0.400.270.53
 Disability weight for a manic episode of bipolar disorder0.490.340.65
 Disability weight for mild depression0.150.100.21
 Disability weight for moderate depression0.400.270.53
 Disability weight for severe depression0.660.480.81
 Disability weight for health0.000.000.00
 Disability weight for death1.001.001.00
Condition severity( 16 )
 Proportion of all anxiety cases that are asymptomatic, unadjusted0.290.280.30
 Proportion of all anxiety cases that are mild, unadjusted0.390.340.44
 Proportion of all anxiety cases that are moderate, unadjusted0.190.160.23
 Proportion of all anxiety cases that are severe, unadjusted0.130.090.17
 Proportion of all depression cases that are severe, unadjusted0.100.030.20
 Proportion of people with bipolar disorder in depressed state at start0.230.100.39
 Proportion of people with bipolar disorder in manic state at start0.210.120.33
 Proportion of all depression cases that are asymptomatic, unadjusted0.130.100.17
 Proportion of all depression cases that are mild, unadjusted0.590.490.69
 Proportion of all depression cases that are moderate, unadjusted0.170.130.22
Relapse of conditions
 Probability of anxiety relapse after treatment ends.( 76 ) The range reflects 1- to 2 year relapse rates after intervention; the baseline is the mean of the two.0.020.000.04
 Number of separate depressive episodes over the lifetime of a person with a history of depression( 77 ) 7.005.009.00
Remission in the absence of intervention
 Monthly probability of remission of anxiety( 16 78 ) 0.00430.00010.0184
 Average duration of depressive episode among people with any form of bipolar disorder in months( 74 ) 5.181.655.63
 Average duration of manic episode among people with any form of bipolar disorder in months( 74 ) 3.461.007.08
 Average duration of depressive episode in months( 16 ) 7.807.088.40
Educational outcomes
 Increased odds of failing to complete secondary education among adolescents with anxiety in secondary school( 79 ) 1.401.101.80
 The reduction in probability that a person with bipolar disorder will graduate from tertiary school; 50% variability in sensitivity analysis( 25 ) 0.340.170.51
 Increased odds of failing to complete secondary education among adolescents with depression in secondary school( 79 ) 3.381.186.42
Employment and productivity outcomes
 Multiplier for reduction in probability of employment if have bipolar disorder( 33 ) 0.600.300.90
 Presenteeism to absenteeism ratio, depression( 30 ) 5.921.4212.50
 Presenteeism to absenteeism ratio, anxiety( 30 ) 0.000.005.92
  • *Incidence of anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression and suicide differ by age, sex, and country and are drawn from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease Study.16

  • †These values reflect the unmodified disability weights from the 2019 Global Burden of Disease study. All non-death values are adjusted in the model to account for background morbidity by country, age and sex; see online supplemental file 1 for the methods used to do so.16