Table 1

The global turn towards mandatory COVID-19 proof-of-vaccination policies*

Policy/interventionCountries
‘No jab, no job’ mandates
(eg, government employees, key workers, public and private sector)
Australia, Canada, China, Costa Rica, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, France, Ghana, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Latvia, Lebanon, New Zealand, Oman, Poland, Philippines, Russia, Saudi Arabia, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, USA
Healthcare worker mandatesAustralia, Britain, Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, England, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Lebanon, New Zealand, Poland, USA (some states)
Internal vaccine passports to attend social events, restaurants, bars, nightclubs, fitness facilities, entertainment venues and for bus/train/airport travelAustralia, Austria, Britain, Bulgaria, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Italy, Israel, Kenya, Lebanon, Morocco, Netherlands, Romania, Serbia, Singapore, Switzerland, South Korea, Ukraine, USA (some states)
School-based mandatesCanada (several provinces), Costa Rica, Lithuania and USA (some states)
Full country mandatory vaccinationAustria, Ecuador, Germany, Indonesia, Micronesia, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan
Full population mandate for the elderlyCzech Republic, Greece, Malaysia, Russia
  • *This is not a comprehensive list of policies, which are rapidly changing in early 2022. This list excludes the use of segregated lockdowns of the unvaccinated (eg, Austria, Germany, Australia), entry requirements for international travel, fines and penalties (including restricted access to social services and medical care, business capacity restrictions and threats of imprisonment) and the use of vaccine metrics to inform other restrictions. There is a significant variation in how countries recognise infection-derived immunity, allow religious, philosophical and/or medical exemptions and incorporate testing as an alternative to vaccination. In addition, some countries have implemented a combination of policies and interventions, so each is not mutually exclusive. As of March 2022, some countries also shifted course and decided to not implement these policies due to changing epidemiological circumstances and sociopolitical resistance. Adapted from Reuters.136