Large urban (Nairobi) | Medium urban (Nakuru) | Small urban (Kilifi) | Semiurban (Migori) | Total | ||

Euclidean distances (km) | Mean distance to nearest outlet of same type offering method | 0.33 | 0.53 | 0.68 | 1.25 | 0.71 |

Mean distance to visited outlet | 0.5 | 0.99 | 0.91 | 1.93 | 1.07 | |

Modelled least cost distances (km) | Mean distance to nearest outlet of same type offering method | 0.35 | 0.56 | 0.74 | 1.34 | 0.76 |

Mean distance to visited outlet | 0.53 | 1.05 | 0.98 | 2.07 | 1.15 | |

Modelled travel times (min:s) | Mean time to nearest outlet of same type offering method | 3:54 | 4:36 | 6:42 | 9:48 | 6:24 |

Mean time to visited outlet | 5:42 | 7:30 | 8:48 | 11:42 | 8:30 | |

Mean time to visited outlet (among those going to nearest) | 3:54 | 5:24 | 6:18 | 9:54 | 6:30 | |

Mean time to visited outlet (among those not going to nearest) | 7:24 | 8:54 | 13:24 | 13:24 | 10:42 | |

Self-report and modelled time differences, by transport type | ||||||

Mean time to visited outlet (walked) | Self-reported travel time (min:s) | 14:05 | 11:54 | 14:41 | 20.08 | 15:05 |

Modelled travel times (min:s) | 6:03 | 9:04 | 10:00 | 14.11 | 9:19 | |

Difference | 8:02*** | 2:50* | 4:41*** | 5:57*** | 5:47*** | |

Mean time to visited outlet (other means of transport) | Self-reported travel time (min:s) | 12:25 | 10:24 | 15:20 | 16:38 | 14:35 |

Modelled travel times (min:s) | 1:28 | 4:59 | 3:34 | 9:02 | 6:16 | |

Difference | 10:57*** | 5:25*** | 11:46*** | 7:36*** | 8:19*** |

Significance levels: *p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001.