Table 2

Overview of all studies included in the systematic review.

StudyFirst author affiliationCountry studiedType of surgical visitStudy typeSurgical specialty
Okonta et al32NigeriaNigeriaSurgical missions+combined clinical and teaching visitsResearch letterCardiac surgery
Roberts et al17USA51 LMICsCombined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional study (survey)Orthopaedic surgery
Billig et al33USAVietnam†Combined clinical and teaching visitsQualitative studyPlastic surgery
Vyas et al34USAPeru†Combined clinical and teaching visitsProspective studyPlastic surgery
Margolick et al39CanadaMexico†Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional study (survey)General surgery (acute care rotation)
Nwafor et al35NigeriaNigeria†Surgical missions+combined clinical and teaching visitsRetrospective studyCardiac surgery
Chaus36USAHaiti†Surgical missionsQualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
Munabi et al19USARwanda*Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional study (survey)Plastic surgery
Cheok et al20SingaporeCambodia†Combined clinical and teaching visitsQualitative studyPlastic surgery
Woolley et al37HaitiHaiti†Surgical missionsViewpointOrthopaedic surgery
Alassani et al38TogoTogo*/Benin†Surgical missionsRetrospective studyMixed SAO specialties
Close et al40UKBenin†Surgical missionsQualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
Coughran et al21USAGuatemala†Surgical missionsQualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
Munabi et al22USARwanda*Combined clinical and teaching visitsPre-intervention and post-intervention surveysPlastic surgery
Worden et al23USAVietnam†Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional study (survey)Otolaryngology
Schoenbrunner et al44USAMexico†Surgical missionsCross-sectional study (survey)Plastic surgery
Roche et al43USAGuatemala†Surgical missionsQualitative+cross-sectional study (survey)Mixed SAO specialties
Hayton et al24USAMalawi*Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional surveyGeneral surgery
Cook et al25USATanzania†Combined clinical and teaching visitsPre-intervention and post-intervention surveysMixed SAO specialties
Roche and Hall-Clifford42USAGuatemala†Surgical missionsQualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
Berry45CanadaGuatemala†Surgical missionsQualitative+descriptive studyMixed SAO specialties
Cadotte et al26CanadaEthiopia*Combined clinical and teaching visitsQualitative studyNeurosurgery
Elobu et al27UgandaUganda*Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional study (survey)Mixed SAO specialties
Kavolus et al28USAGuatemala†Surgical missionsCross-sectional study (survey)Orthopaedic surgery
Cadotte et al29CanadaEthiopia*Combined clinical and teaching visitsRetrospective+qualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
Mitchell et al46USATanzania†Surgical missionsViewpointMixed SAO specialties
Haglund et al30USAUganda*Combined clinical and teaching visitsRetrospective studyNeurosurgery
Cameron et al31CanadaGuyana†Combined clinical and teaching visitsCross-sectional studyGeneral surgery
Nthumba18KenyaSub-Saharan AfricaSurgical missionsViewpointMixed SAO specialties
Green et al41USAGuatemala†Surgical missionsQualitative studyMixed SAO specialties
  • *Low-income countries.

  • †Middle-income countries.

  • LMIC, low-income and middle-income country; SAO, surgery, anaesthesia and obstetrics.