Table 1

Illustrative examples of gender analysis

What constitutes gender power relationsIllustrative gender analysis research question
Access to resources (Who has what?)Access to resources (education, information, skills, income, employment, services, benefits, time, space, social capital, etc.)To what extent do women and men have the same access to education, information, income, employment and other resources that contribute to improvement in maternal, newborn, and child health? Do women have sufficient means to make decisions and access healthcare services without financial restrictions?
Division of labour (Who does what?)Division of labour within and beyond the household and everyday practicesHow do women’s social roles, such as childbearing, childcare, and infant feeding, affect their economic opportunities and access to health facilities?
Social norms (How are values defined?)Social norms, ideologies, beliefs and perceptionsHow does stigma inhibit women’s access to maternal healthcare services and are these available to unmarried women and teenage mothers? How do cultural norms about motherhood put women at risk of adverse health?
Agency and decision making (Who decides?)Agency and decision making (both formal and informal)To what extent are women able to advocate for their health needs and contribute to household decisions that shape their and their children’s health?
Power negotiation (How is power enacted, negotiated or challenged?)Critical consciousness, acknowledgement/lack of acknowledgement, agency/apathy, interests, historical and lived experiences, resistance or violenceHow is power enacted and negotiated in relation to maternal, newborn, and child health and how does power dynamics or women’s experience of intimate partners contribute to adverse health for women, children and their families?