Table 2

Implications and recommendations for programme and policy

Gender aspectRecommendations
Access to resources (Who has what?)
  • Eliminate financial barriers in accessing maternal and child health services.

  • Empower mothers through formal and informal education to enhance their health awareness and consciousnesss, efficacy and ability to make informed decisions about their health and their child/children’s health.

Division of labour (Who does what?)
  • Provide adequate support and affordable childcare for mothers to enhance their productivity and participation in the labour force.

  • Incentivise programmes that motivate the involvement of men in childcare and house chores.

Social norms (How are values defined?)
  • Address issues regarding cultural stereotypes that impede maternal access to healthcare services, including those related to marriage and adolescent motherhood. This could be in the form of providing a friendly and safe environment for adolescent and unmarried mothers to access healthcare.

  • Engage community leaders in alleviating social norms that put women and girls at risk of poor health. This includes social norms that limit the contributions of women beyond motherhood.

Agency and decision making (Who decides?)
  • Provide universal access to safe and effective means of contraception, irrespective of the level of education and wealth.

  • Strengthen the capacity of women and girls through education and job creation to contribute significantly to household decision making.

  • Empower women to make decisive decisions about whether they want to have a/another baby and when they want to do so.

Power negotiation (How is power enacted, negotiated or challenged?)
  • Develop effective systems and strategies for the reporting and management of intimate partner violence and abuse.