Table 4

Outcomes

OutcomesTreatment groupRegression analysisTreatment groupRegression analysis
Delayed testing
n=138
Rapid testing
n=134
Effect estimate (95% CI) p valuePlacebo
n=137
Probiotic
n=135
Effect estimate (95% CI) p value
Height-for-age z-score at 60 days*; median (Q1,Q3)−0.77 (−1.64,0.21)−0.74 (−1.32,0.14)Mean difference:
0.01 (−0.14 to 0.16) 0.923
−0.70
(−1.52, 0.20)
−0.81
(−1.47,0.16)
Mean difference:
−0.07 (−0.22 to 0.08) 0.340
 Missing191332171532
Recurrent diarrhoea: n (%)36 (28.35)24 (19.05)OR:
0.60 (0.33 to 1.08) 0.089
27 (21.09)33 (26.40)OR:
1.29 (0.72 to 2.33) 0.395
 Missing1181991019
60-day mortality2 (1.47)5 (3.76)2.86 (0.50 to 16.24) 0.2376 (4.41)1 (0.75)0.14 (0.02 to 1.25) 0.078
 Missing213123
Presence of stunting at 60-day follow-up (Y/N)20 (16.81)15 (12.40)OR:
0.71 (0.33 to 1.51) 0.369
14 (11.67)21 (17.50)OR:
1.49 (0.70 to 3.18) 0.304
 Missing191332171532
Weight z-score at 60-day follow-up adjusted for initial weight*; median (Q1,Q3)−0.56 (−1.30,0.68)−0.54 (−1.19,0.15)Mean difference:
−0.05 (−0.21 to 0.11) 0.564
−0.43 (−1.19,0.45)−0.71 (−1.32,0.24)Mean difference:
−0.08 (−0.24 to 0.08) 0.319
 Missing354075344176
Length of stay in hospital (days); median (Q1,Q3)3 (2,4)3 (2,4)Incident rate ratio:
0.99 (0.88 to 1.12) 0.932
3 (2,4)3 (2,4)Incident rate ratio:
1.06 (0.94 to 1.19) 0.361
Development of sepsis in the 60-day follow-up period (Y/N)1 (0.72)0NA01 (0.74)NA
Blood cultures positive for Lactobacillus species in the 60-day follow-up period00NA00NA
7-day mortality (Y/N)01 (0.76)NA1 (0.74)0NA
 Missing2222
Re-presentation to a healthcare provider because of acute diarrhoea or any other reason during the 60-day follow-up period
(a) Acute diarrhoea20 (14.49)14 (10.45)OR:
0.69 (0.33 to 1.43) 0.314
15 (10.95)19 (14.07)OR:
1.33 (0.65 to 2.75) 0.437
(b) Other reason (unrelated to diarrhoea)55 (39.86)49 (36.57)OR:
0.87 (0.53 to 1.42) 0.576
52 (37.96)52 (38.52)OR:
1.02 (0.63 to 1.67) 0.924
Readmission to a paediatric medical ward during the 60-day follow-up period (Y/N)7 (5.07)4 (2.99)Not enough events5 (3.65)6 (4.44)Not enough events
Caregiver missed work in the 60-day follow-up period due to participant illness (Y/N)17 (12.32)14 (10.45)OR:
0.83 (0.39 to 1.76) 0.628
13 (9.49)18 (13.33)OR:
1.47 (0.69 to 3.13) 0.320
  • All analyses in table 4 adjusted for severe acute malnutrition.

  • *Adjusted for baseline score and severe acute malnutrition.