Outcomes | Treatment group | Regression analysis | Treatment group | Regression analysis | ||

Delayed testing n=138 | Rapid testing n=134 | Effect estimate (95% CI) p value | Placebo n=137 | Probiotic n=135 | Effect estimate (95% CI) p value | |

Height-for-age z-score at 60 days*; median (Q1,Q3) | −0.77 (−1.64,0.21) | −0.74 (−1.32,0.14) | Mean difference: 0.01 (−0.14 to 0.16) 0.923 | −0.70 (−1.52, 0.20) | −0.81 (−1.47,0.16) | Mean difference: −0.07 (−0.22 to 0.08) 0.340 |

Missing | 19 | 13 | 32 | 17 | 15 | 32 |

Recurrent diarrhoea: n (%) | 36 (28.35) | 24 (19.05) | OR: 0.60 (0.33 to 1.08) 0.089 | 27 (21.09) | 33 (26.40) | OR: 1.29 (0.72 to 2.33) 0.395 |

Missing | 11 | 8 | 19 | 9 | 10 | 19 |

60-day mortality | 2 (1.47) | 5 (3.76) | 2.86 (0.50 to 16.24) 0.237 | 6 (4.41) | 1 (0.75) | 0.14 (0.02 to 1.25) 0.078 |

Missing | 2 | 1 | 3 | 1 | 2 | 3 |

Presence of stunting at 60-day follow-up (Y/N) | 20 (16.81) | 15 (12.40) | OR: 0.71 (0.33 to 1.51) 0.369 | 14 (11.67) | 21 (17.50) | OR: 1.49 (0.70 to 3.18) 0.304 |

Missing | 19 | 13 | 32 | 17 | 15 | 32 |

Weight z-score at 60-day follow-up adjusted for initial weight*; median (Q1,Q3) | −0.56 (−1.30,0.68) | −0.54 (−1.19,0.15) | Mean difference: −0.05 (−0.21 to 0.11) 0.564 | −0.43 (−1.19,0.45) | −0.71 (−1.32,0.24) | Mean difference: −0.08 (−0.24 to 0.08) 0.319 |

Missing | 35 | 40 | 75 | 34 | 41 | 76 |

Length of stay in hospital (days); median (Q1,Q3) | 3 (2,4) | 3 (2,4) | Incident rate ratio: 0.99 (0.88 to 1.12) 0.932 | 3 (2,4) | 3 (2,4) | Incident rate ratio: 1.06 (0.94 to 1.19) 0.361 |

Development of sepsis in the 60-day follow-up period (Y/N) | 1 (0.72) | 0 | NA | 0 | 1 (0.74) | NA |

Blood cultures positive for Lactobacillus species in the 60-day follow-up period | 0 | 0 | NA | 0 | 0 | NA |

7-day mortality (Y/N) | 0 | 1 (0.76) | NA | 1 (0.74) | 0 | NA |

Missing | 2 | 2 | 2 | 2 | ||

Re-presentation to a healthcare provider because of acute diarrhoea or any other reason during the 60-day follow-up period | ||||||

(a) Acute diarrhoea | 20 (14.49) | 14 (10.45) | OR: 0.69 (0.33 to 1.43) 0.314 | 15 (10.95) | 19 (14.07) | OR: 1.33 (0.65 to 2.75) 0.437 |

(b) Other reason (unrelated to diarrhoea) | 55 (39.86) | 49 (36.57) | OR: 0.87 (0.53 to 1.42) 0.576 | 52 (37.96) | 52 (38.52) | OR: 1.02 (0.63 to 1.67) 0.924 |

Readmission to a paediatric medical ward during the 60-day follow-up period (Y/N) | 7 (5.07) | 4 (2.99) | Not enough events | 5 (3.65) | 6 (4.44) | Not enough events |

Caregiver missed work in the 60-day follow-up period due to participant illness (Y/N) | 17 (12.32) | 14 (10.45) | OR: 0.83 (0.39 to 1.76) 0.628 | 13 (9.49) | 18 (13.33) | OR: 1.47 (0.69 to 3.13) 0.320 |

All analyses in table 4 adjusted for severe acute malnutrition.

*Adjusted for baseline score and severe acute malnutrition.