Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicRapid test-and-treat n=134Standard care (no rapid test-and-treat) n=138
Placebo n=68Lactobacillus reuteri n=66Placebo n=69L. reuteri n=69
Age in months: median (Q1,Q3)11.8 (8.4,18.6)10.6 (7.7,16.7)12.4 (7.4, 17.0)9.8 (8.0,15.2)
Male; n (%)37 (54.4)38 (57.6)39 (56.5)39 (56.5)
Medical comorbidities; n (%)2 (2.9)1 (1.5)4 (5.8)1 (1.5)
Receipt of at least one dose of rotavirus vaccine; n (%)67 (98.5)62 (93.9)65 (94.2)64 (94.1)
Child HIV status; n (%)
 Positive2 (3.0)02 (2.9)0
 Exposed, infection status unknown2 (3.0)3 (4.6)2 (2.9)5 (7.4)
 Exposed but uninfected12 (17.9)14 (21.2)9 (13.0)19 (27.9)
 Exposure unclear, infection status unknown10 (14.9)14 (21.2)16 (23.2)9 (13.2)
 Exposure unclear, but known uninfected2 (3.0)3 (4.6)01 (1.5)
 Unexposed39 (58.2)32 (48.5)40 (58.0)34 (50.0)
Severe acute malnutrition; n (%)3 (4.4)3 (4.5)3 (4.3)3 (4.3)
Weight-for-age z score; median (Q1,Q3)−0.79 (-1.33, 0.24)−0.82 (-1.72, 0.08)−0.60 (-1.63, 0.50)−0.46 (-1.22, 0.62)
Height-for-age z score; median (Q1,Q3)−0.43 (-1.33, 0.34)−0.49 (-1.50, 0.24)−0.82 (-1.63, 0.29)−0.60 (-1.19, 0.63)
Child middle upper arm circumference (cm); mean (SD)13.87 (1.88)13.69 (1.60)13.83 (1.84)14.03 (1.66)
Diarrhoea days before admission; median (Q1,Q3)2 (1,4)2 (1,3)2 (1, 4)2 (1,3)
Diarrhoea number/24 hours; mean (SD)6.66 (5.08)6.78 (2.78)6.72 (3.09)7.29 (3.71)
Vomit days before admission; median (Q1,Q3)2 (1, 3)2 (1,3)2 (1, 3)2 (1,2)
 Missing6964
Vomit number/24 hours; median (Q1,Q3)5 (3,9.75)4 (2,6)4 (3,6)4 (2,6)
 Missing6984
Oral rehydration solution prior to admission; n (%)50 (73.5)57 (86.4)55 (79.7)52 (75.4)
Traditional medicine given prior to admission?; n (%)
 Yes, ingested6 (8.8)3 (4.5)6 (8.7)4 (5.8)
 Yes, inhaled1 (1.5)1 (1.5)1 (1.4)1 (1.4)
 No61 (89.7)62 (93.9)62 (89.9)63 (91.3)
 Don’t know0001 (1.4)
Level of dehydration; n (%)
 None5 (7.4)8 (12.1)7 (10.1)9 (13.0)
 Some43 (63.2)30 (45.5)43 (62.3)36 (52.1)
 Severe14 (20.6)22 (33.3)16 (23.2)15 (21.7)
 Unknown6 (8.8)6 (9.1)3 (4.3)9 (13.0)
Rehydration therapy at the hospital; n(%)
 Both IV and oral rehydration53 (77.9)49 (74.2)52 (75.4)56 (81.2)
 IV only8 (11.8)10 (15.2)10 (14.5)9 (13.0)
 Oral only7 (10.3)7 (10.6)6 (8.7)3 (4.3)
 None001 (1.4)1 (1.4)
Zinc treatment; n (%)61 (89.7)56 (84.8)60 (87.0)62 (89.9)
Number of children under age of 5 years living in the same household; n (%)
 141 (61.2)37 (56.1)42 (60.9)36 (52.2)
 213 (19.4)14 (21.2)17 (24.6)21 (30.4)
 39 (13.4)13 (19.7)6 (8.7)8 (11.6)
 43 (4.5)04 (5.8)4 (5.8)
 51 (1.5)2 (3.0)00
Mother’s marital status; n (%)
 Married11 (16.2)7 (10.6)10 (14.5)12 (17.4)
 Single56 (82.4)56 (84.8)58 (84.1)57 (82.6)
 Divorced01 (1.5)00
 Cohabitation1 (1.5)2 (3.0)1 (1.4)0
Mother’s education; n (%)
 Did not complete primary school3 (4.4)1 (1.5)3 (4.3)4 (5.8)
 Completed primary school7 (10.3)13 (19.7)5 (7.2)6 (8.7)
 Completed secondary school39 (57.4)36 (54.5)41 (59.4)38 (55.1)
 Completed postsecondary training (vocational /technical)14 (20.6)11 (16.7)13 (18.8)12 (17.4)
 Completed university degree5 (7.4)5 (7.6)7 (10.1)9 (13.0)
Socioeconomic parameters*; n(%)
 Electricity in home62 (91.2)47 (71.2)56 (81.2)52 (75.4)
 Ownership of car38 (55.9)32 (48.5)33 (47.8)37 (53.6)
 Ownership of mobile phone68 (100)65 (98.5)67 (97.2)69 (100)
 Refrigerator in home57 (83.8)37 (56.1)49 (71.0)43 (62.3)
Water source; n (%)
 Tap to house41 (60.3)37 (56.9)31 (44.9)37 (53.6)
 Shared community tap27 (39.7)28 (43.1)38 (55.1)31 (44.9)
 Bore hole0001 (1.4)
Method of feeding (for only those aged <6 months); n (%)
 Exclusively breast fed31 (45.6)26 (40.6)27 (39.7)19 (27.5)
 Exclusively formula fed17 (25.0)16 (25.0)13 (19.1)19 (27.5)
 Mixed feeding19 (27.9)22 (34.4)28 (41.2)31 (44.9)
 Don’t know1000
 Missing0210
  • All variables with missing data are listed as such.

  • *Multiple responses possible, percentages may add to more than 100%.