Table 1

Characteristic of studies included in this systematic review

Author, yearCountryWorld bank classificationDementia typeDementia diagnosisPerspectiveSample characteristicsCosting approach/methodData sourceCosting levelReported costComorbidities assessed in the cost analysis
Direct medicalDirect Non-medicalIndirect
Aajami et al, 201923IranUMICADClinical diagnosisSocietalSample size: 300 patients, 300 caregivers, no controls. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=80 (4.56), 52% females; only urban sample; AD society.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterview and
Medical records
Annual cost per personNo
Allegri et al, 200724ArgentinaUMICAD
NINCDS-ADRDASocietalSample size: 100 patients, 100 caregivers, 25 controls. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=74.58 (7.76); 56% females; only urban sample; mixed community and institutionalised.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewAnnual cost per personYes
Custodio et al, 201525PeruUMICAD, FTD and VaDDSM-IV-TR,
NINCDS-ADRDA, Lund and Manchester criteria, NINDS AIREN criteria
HC payerSample size: 106 patients, 106 caregivers, 30 controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mean age=70.01 (4.83), 59% females; only urban sample; single clinic based
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterview and
Medical records
3 months cost per personNo
Ferretti et al, 201826BrazilUMICDementiaDoctor/nurse diagnosisSocietalSample size: 156 patients, 156 caregivers, no controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mean age=72.9 (10.2), 58% females; only urban sample; single hospital based
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewMonthly cost per personYes
Jia et al, 201838ChinaUMICADNINCDS-ADRDASocietalSample size: 3046 patients, 3046 caregivers, no controls. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=70–79*, 54% females; urban and rural sample; multicentre and cluster randomised.
Descriptive analysis and prevalence-based estimation; patient level primary data and national level assumption.Interview and
Medical records
Annual cost per person and annual total country’s expenditureYes
Keogh-Brown et al, 201627ChinaUMICADNASocietalNAMultistate probabilistic simulation model of AD progression; national level dataPrevalence basedAnnual change in net present value GDP per personNo
Kongpakwattana et al, 201928ThailandUMICADDoctor diagnosisSocietalSample size: 148 patients, 148 caregivers, no controls. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=80.1 (8.0), 71% females; only urban sample; mixed community and nursing institution based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewAnnual cost per personYes
Koris, 201844MalaysiaUMICDementiaDoctor diagnosisSocietalSample size: 404 patients, caregivers and controls not specified.
Mode age =70–79*; 71% females; urban and rural sample; single hospital based.
Descriptive cost; patient and national level primary dataInterview and Medical recordsAnnual cost per person and annual total country’s expenditureYes
Liu, 201345China, Cuba, Dominican Republic, India, Mexico, Peru, VenezuelaUMIC, LRMICDementiaValidated 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm and/or DSM IV dementia criteriaSocietalSample size: 1379 patients, 15 022 caregiver, 13 643 controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mode age ≥80 * ; 67% females; urban and rural sample; single hospital based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterview and
Survey
Annual cost per personYes
Mould-Quevedo et al, 201329ChinaUMICDementiaDSM-IV-TR,
NINCDS-ADRDA
HC payerSample size: 1387 patients, 1387 caregivers, no controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mean age=67.6 (12.8); 48% females; urban and rural sample; randomised multicentre hospitals and nursing institutions based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewMonthly cost per personNo
Nur et al, 201730MalaysiaUMICDementiaDoctor diagnosisHC providerSample size: 142 patients, no caregivers, no controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mean age=75 (8.05); 50% females; urban and rural sample; randomised multicentre hospital based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataMedical recordsPer episode of care per personNo
Prada et al, 201739ColombiaUMICDementiaICD-10HC providerSample size: 340 patients, no caregivers, no controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mode age >50*; 57% females; urban and rural sample; insurance claim database.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInsurer databaseAnnual cost per personYes
Prince et al, 200447Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Uruguay, Venezuela, China, India, NigeriaHIC, UMIC, LRMICDementiaDSM-IVSocietalSample size: 706 patients, 706 caregivers, no control. Severe dementia excluded.
Mean age=NA; 53% females; urban and rural sample; multi-centre community based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterview and Client Service Receipt InventoryMonthly cost per personNo
Rao and Bharath, 201332IndiaLRMICDementiaDSM-IV/ICD 10SocietalNAPreavalence based estimation; patient level primary data and national level assumption.Medical records and
cost assumption
Annual cost per person and annual total country’s expenditureNo
Rojas et al, 201133ArgentinaUMICAD, FTD and VaDDSM-IV-TR, NINCDS-ADRDA, Lund and Manchester criteria, NINDS AIREN criteriaHC payerSample size: 104 patients, 104 caregivers, 29 controls. Any dementia severity level.
Mean age=68.8 (6.62); 53% females; only urban sample; single hospital based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewAnnual cost per personNo
Wang et al, 200834ChinaUMICADDSM-IV-TRSocietalSample size: 66 patients, 66 caregivers, no control. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=74 (53–90), gender not specified; urban sample; single hospital based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewAnnual cost per personNo
Wimo et al, 200640WorldwideHIC, UMIC, LRMIC, LICDementiaNAHC payerNAPrevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Prevalence basedAnnual aggregated cost by major regionsNo
Wimo et al, 200742WorldwideHIC, UMIC, LRMIC, LICDementiaNASocietalNAPrevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Prevalence basedAnnual aggregated cost by major world regions and countryNo
Wimo et al, 201043WorldwideHIC, UMIC, LRMIC, LICDementiaNASocietalNAPrevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Prevalence basedAnnual aggregated cost by major world regions and countryNo
Wimo et al, 201340WorldwideHIC, UMIC, LRMIC, LICDementiaNASocietalNAPrevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Prevalence basedAnnual aggregated and per person cost by major world regionsNo
Wimo et al, 20173WorldwideHIC, UMIC, LRMIC, LICDementiaValidated 10/66 dementia diagnostic algorithm and/or DSM IV dementia criteria (for LMIC from Liu, 2013)45SocietalNAPrevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Prevalence-basedAnnual aggregated and per person cost by major world regionsNo
Xu et al, 201735ChinaUMICDementiaICD-10SocietalSample size: 146 patients, 66 caregivers, no control. Any dementia severity level.
Mode age =75–79* | 62% females; urban and rural sample; two hospitals based.
Descriptive cost and prevalence-based estimation; national level assumption.Medical records and
Prevalence based
Annual cost per person and annual total country’s expenditureNo
Yan et al, 201936ChinaUMICADNINCDS-ADRDASocietalSample size: 3046 patients, 8041.4 caregivers, no control. Any AD severity level.
Mean age=75.27 (9.4); 54% females; urban and rural sample; multicentre hospitals and institutions based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterview and
Medical records
Annual cost per personYes
Zencir et al, 200537TurkeyUMICADDSM-IVSocietalSample size: 42 patients, 42 caregivers, no control. Any AD severity level.
70.5 (8.9) | 62% females; only urban sample; single AD association based.
Descriptive cost; patient level primary dataInterviewAnnual cost per personNo
  • *Mode.

  • †Keogh-Brown study is not a traditional cost-of-illness study.

  • ‡From thesis publication.

  • AD, Alzheimer’s disease; ANOVA, Analysis of variance; CDR, Clinical Dementia Rating; DSM-IV-TR, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria; FAST scale, Functional Assessment Staging Scale; FTD, frontotemporal dementia; GDP, gross domestic product; GLM, generalised linear model; HC, healthcare; HIC, high-income country; ICD-10, International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision; LIC, low-income countries; LRMICs, lower-middle-income countries; NA, not available; NINCDS-ADRDA, National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke and Alzheimer’s Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria; NINDS AIREN, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the Association Internationale pour la Recherche et l’Enseignement en Neurosciences; UMICs, upper-middle-income countries; VaD, Vascular Dementia.