Table 2

Estimated incremental cost-effectiveness of a representative HCD-informed intervention

Per client costLow HCD up-front cost (US$178 000)Mid HCD up-front cost (US$356 000)High HCD up-front cost (US$534 000)
Incremental cost-effectiveness (2000 clients reached, 0.05 DALYs averted per client)
Incremental cost per DALY avertedUS$1782US$1800US$2180US$3780US$3562US$3580US$3960US$5560US$5342US$5360US$5740US$7340
Number of clients that must be reached to achieve cost-effectiveness (0.05 DALYs averted per client)
 US$1000/DALY threshold357036305930*7130727011 900*10 70010 90017 800*
 US$500/DALY threshold7150742035 600*14 30014 80071 200*21 40022 300106 800*
Number of DALYs that must be averted per client reached to achieve cost-effectiveness (2000 clients reached)
 US$1000/DALY threshold0.0890.090.1090.190.1780.1790.1980.280.2670.2680.2870.37
 US$500/DALY threshold0.1780.180.2180.380.3560.3580.3960.560.5340.5360.5740.74
  • *Cannot achieve cost-effectiveness because US$100 per client (at 0.05 DALYs averted per client) would exceed the threshold.

  • DALY, disability-adjusted life year; HCD, human-centred design.