Table 4

Fixed and random effect analysis of predictors of skin-to-skin contact in sub-Saharan Africa

VariablesModel 0Model I aOR (95% CI)Model II aOR (95% CI)Model III aOR (95% CI)
Fixed-effect results
Birth order
First1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Second1.14*** (1.08 to 1.20)1.09** (1.03 to 1.15)
Third1.19*** (1.11 to 1.26)1.12** (1.04 to 1.19)
Fourth1.18*** (1.10 to 1.27)1.10* (1.02 to 1.19)
Fifth or more1.13** (1.05 to 1.22)1.09*(1.01 to 1.18)
Birth weight
Normal (≥2.5 kg)1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Low birth weight (<2.5 kg)1.13*** (1.06 to 1.21)1.09*(1.01 to 1.17)
Type of delivery
Vaginal1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Caesarean section0.21*** (0.20 to 0.24)0.15*** (0.13 to 0.16)
Type of birth
Single1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Multiple0.82*** (0.73 to 0.92)0.76*** (0.67 to 0.86)
Mother’s age (years)
15–191 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
20–241.00 (0.94 to 1.07)1.01 (0.94 to 1.08)
25–290.95 (0.88 to 1.02)0.98 (0.90 to 1.06)
30–341.03 (0.95 to 1.12)1.06 (0.97 to 1.15)
35–391.00 (0.92 to 1.09)1.01 (0.92 to 1.11)
40–440.95 (0.86 to 1.05)0.95 (0.86 to 1.06)
45–490.96 (0.84 to 1.10)0.94 (0.82 to 1.08)
Maternal educational level
No education1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Primary1.42*** (1.35 to 1.49)1.07** (1.02 to 1.12)
Secondary or higher1.44*** (1.36 to 1.52)1.12*** (1.06 to 1.19)
Marital status
Never in union1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Married0.74*** (0.69 to 0.79)0.99 (0.92 to 1.07)
Cohabiting1.11** (1.03 to 1.21)0.94 (0.87 to 1.03)
Widowed0.83** (0.72 to 0.96)1.02 (0.87 to 1.18)
Divorced0.81** (0.72 to 0.92)0.98 (0.86 to 1.12)
Separated1.07 (0.97 to 1.18)0.97 (0.88 to 1.08)
Current working status
No1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Yes1.00 (0.96 to 1.04)0.98 (0.94 to 1.03)
ANC
None1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
1–31.48*** (1.34 to 1.63)1.36*** (1.23 to 1.50)
4 or more1.76*** (1.60 to 1.93)1.59*** (1.44 to 1.76)
Place of delivery
Home1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Health facility6.73*** (6.28 to 7.20)6.11*** (5.71 to 6.54)
Other1.35*** (1.14 to 1.59)0.86 (0.72 to 1.04)
Health insurance coverage
No1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Yes0.55*** (0.50 to 0.61)1.15** (1.05 to 1.27)
Exposed to reading newspaper/magazine
No1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Yes1.58*** (1.46 to 1.71)1.29*** (1.19 to 1.40)
Exposed to listening radio
No1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Yes1.19*** (1.14 to 1.24)1.07** (1.03 to 1.12)
Exposed to watching television
No1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Yes0.98 (0.92 to 1.03)1.05 (0.99 to 1.11)
Wealth index
Poorest1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Poorer1.18*** (1.12 to 1.24)1.02 (0.96 to 1.08)
Middle1.37*** (1.29 to 1.46)1.03 (0.97 to 1.10)
Richer1.74*** (1.62 to 1.87)1.18*** (1.10 to 1.27)
Richest2.09*** (1.93 to 2.28)1.28***(1.17 to 1.40)
Place of residence
Urban1 (1.00 to 1.00)1 (1.00 to 1.00)
Rural0.79*** (0.74 to 0.86)0.93*(0.86 to 0.99)
Random effect results
PSU variance (95% CI)0.68 (0.55 to 0.84)1.03 (0.83 to 1.29)0.17 (0.13 to 0.22)0.20 (0.15 to 0.25)
ICC0.170.240.050.06
Wald χ2Reference5220.47***6339.22***9329.47***
Model fitness
Log-likelihood−87325.69−74997.35−72592.07−65348.40
AIC174 655.4150 056.7145 230.1130 800.8
N131 094131 094131 094131 094
Number of clusters1399139913991399
  • Exponentiated coefficients; 95% CIs in parentheses.

  • Model II and III were controlled for countries.

  • *P<0.05, **p<0.01, ***p<0.001.

  • 1, reference category; AIC, Akaike’s information criterion; ANC, antenatal care; aOR, adjusted OR; ICC, intraclass correlation; PSU, primary sampling unit.