Table 2

Characteristics of included records

CharacteristicNo of records (%)
Year of publication
 2000–201041 (17.0)
 2011–2021200 (83.0)
Publication type
 Peer-reviewed journal article222 (92.1)
 Grey literature report12 (5.0)
 DHS/MICS/WHO reports4 (1.7)
 PhD theses3 (1.2)
 Democratic Republic of the Congo23
 Sierra Leone10
 Sao Tome and Principe5
 Central African Republic2
 Solomon Islands1
 Equatorial Guinea0
Data source
 Primary133 (55.2)
 Secondary104 (43.2) (62% DHS)
 Both primary and secondary4 (1.6)
 Quantitative175 (72.6)
 Qualitative58 (24.1)
 Mixed8 (3.3)
Study methods
 Quantitative designs
  Cross-sectional169 (70.1)
  Longitudinal (prospective cohort n=2, retrospective cohort n=1, longitudinal analysis of baseline/endline data n=2)5 (2.1)
  Retrospective1 (0.4)
Qualitative methods
 Individual interviews26 (10.8)
 Focus group discussions9 (3.7)
 Ethnography2 (0.8)
 Case study1 (0.4)
 Combination of qualitative methods20 (8.3)
Type of violence studied
 Controlling behaviour11
 English239 (99.2)
 Spanish2 (0.8)
Total studies=241
  • Percentages not included for country and type of violence because some studies included data from more than one country and for more than one type of violence.

  • DHS, Demographic and Health Surveys; MICS, Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys.