Table 3

Non-factual claims made in YouTube videos about COVID-19 vaccination*

Reference standardNo of videos containing non-factual statements that contradict reference standardExamples of non-factual statements
COVID-19 is a serious disease1Immunity (natural and through healthy habits) and vitamin D are enough to survive COVID-19’
‘This virus is like pollen in the air…God is the real healer.’
COVID-19 vaccine is effective3‘Right now we are in the middle of a storm, and a vaccine is not going to help.’
‘I had COVID-19 so I don't need the vaccine’
COVID-19 vaccine is generally safe6‘I have autoimmune disease so I can’t have it’
‘Vaccine affects fertility’
There are very few contraindications to the COVID-19 vaccine3‘Those who have any history of …. fever (may be due to any other cause), bleeding disorder, on blood thinners or immunocompromised…. or anyone suffering from serious health related issues…must not take vaccines’
‘Old people should avoid getting vaccinated’