Table 2

Sample characteristics‡ overall and by intimate partner violence during COVID-19 pandemic (n=363*), weighted

OverallIPV during COVID-19 pandemic
%Row %P value†aOR (95% CI)†§
Total27.6
Individual
Age group0.48
 16–20 years30.431.1
 20–25 years69.626.0
Highest level of education completed0.006
 Secondary/‘A’ level or higher76.122.8
 Less than secondary23.942.6
Subjective household SES tertile0.001
 Lowest37.940.0
 Middle20.521.7
 Highest41.619.2
Pre-COVID main activity0.01
 School/caregiving39.918.0ref
 Paid work60.133.91.72 (1.11 to 2.68)
Family structure0.001
 Lives with parents57.319.2
 Lives alone, with partner or others42.738.7
Primary earner0.02
 Self16.442.5
 Someone else83.624.6
Social support0.003
 High79.122.7ref
 Low20.946.02.02 (1.47 to 2.76)
Personal control to leave household0.25
 None or very little22.320.7
 Some or a fair amount39.325.7
 Full control38.433.5
Partner dyad
Living with partner0.42
 No82.226.3
 Yes17.833.1
Age difference with current partner0.005
<4 years difference69.422.0ref
 >4 years difference30.640.11.95 (1.41 to 2.70)
Past 12-month transactional relationship0.02
 No36.835.1
 Yes63.320.1
Fear in relationship in 20190.12
 No53.924.6
 Yes46.135.7
COVID-19 impacts since onset of restrictions
Ability to meet basic needs since COVID-19 restrictions0.07
 Able to meet basic needs44.021.2ref
 Not able to meet basic needs56.032.61.30 (0.83 to 2.02)
Change in amount of time at home since COVID-19 restrictions
 Home less/unchanged12.536.0
 Home more87.526.3
Change in personal control to leave household since COVID-19 restrictions0.66
 Less control29.228.0
 Unchanged25.532.1
 More control45.324.7
Change in amount of time with partner since COVID-19 restrictions0.64
 Less time/unchanged57.924.6
 More time42.127.7
Change in economic reliance on others since COVID-19 restrictions0.14
 More reliant59.423.3
 Not more reliant40.633.7
  • −indicates not included in final adjusted model aOR.

  • *Among partnered AGYW with complete 12-month follow-up or 18-month follow-up data.

  • †P value from design-based F-statistic for IPV experience by sample characteristic boldface indicates statistical significance at p<0.05.

  • ‡Characteristics obtained at 12-month follow-up (2020).

  • §Generalised linear model (GLM) with link log and family binomial, accounting for robust SE clustering by node and survey design weighting.

  • AGYW, adolescent girls and young women; aOR, adjusted OR; IPV, intimate partner violence; SES, socioeconomic status.