Table 3

Intimate partner violence trajectories over 18 months prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic, by 2020 survey characteristics (n=246†, weighted)

Sustained safety (n=162)Cesate IPV
(n=23)
Initiate IPV
(n=27)
Intermittent IPV
(n=33)
P value*
%%%%
Overall66.29.211.113.6
Individual
Age group0.61
 16–20 years62.27.810.319.7
 21–26 years67.79.711.311.3
Highest level of education completed<0.001
 Secondary/ ‘A’ level or higher72.88.310.78.2
 Less than secondary42.612.512.332.7
Relative household SES tertial0.27
 Lowest52.59.315.722.5
 Middle69.39.08.313.4
 Highest73.99.29.37.6
Pre-COVID main activity0.04
 School/caregiving78.36.68.17.0
 Paid work57.811.013.118.1
Family structure0.10
 Lives with parents73.19.17.110.7
 Lives alone, with partner or others56.09.317.017.8
Primary earner0.37
 Self53.311.413.421.9
 Someone else69.18.810.511.7
Social support0.02
 High71.39.59.79.5
 Low45.08.016.830.2
Personal control to leave household0.37
 None or very little65.116.57.610.8
 Some or a fair amount69.93.410.116.7
 Full control62.211.514.911.4
Partner dyad
Living with partner0.32
 No67.39.28.814.6
 Yes61.69.020.39.2
Age difference with current partner0.02
<4 years difference73.38.69.48.7
 >4 years difference49.910.514.924.7
Past 12-month transactional relationship0.02
 No60.23.910.025.9
 Yes69.412.011.67.1
Fear in relationship in 20190.06
 No75.74.66.912.8
 Yes55.814.115.414.7
Fear in relationship in 20200.44
 No70.98.611.49.1
 Yes60.49.211.518.9
Changes relative to start of COVID-19 restrictions
Change in ability to meet basic needs0.07
 Able to meet basic needs72.610.112.15.2
 Not able to meet basic needs61.48.510.219.8
Change in amount of time at home0.13
 Home less/unchanged61.07.226.94.9
 Home more66.99.58.914.8
Change in personal control to leave house0.64
 Less control67.57.910.214.6
 Unchanged64.78.65.821.0
 More control66.210.414.49.0
Change in amount of time with partner since COVID-190.17
 Less time/unchanged70.96.812.59.2
 More time58.612.89.519.1
Change in economic reliance on others0.22
 More reliant71.27.011.710.1
 Not more reliant57.912.99.919.4
  • *P value from design-based F-statistic; boldface indicates statistical significance at p<0.05.

  • †Restricted to AGYW who were partnered at all three rounds.

  • AGYW, adolescent girls and young women; BD, put all three references here for the data; IPV, intimate partner violence; SES, socioeconomic status.