Table 1

Summaries of the location, participant characteristics, broader programme (if present), format, frequency, duration and programme content area of the 20 writing and publishing interventions in the analytical sample

Citation and/or intervention nameLocation of activitiesParticipant characteristics and numberWas the writing and /or publishing intervention part of a broader programme or was it stand alone? if not, description of main programmeFormat, frequency, duration and activities of writing and publishing interventionProgramme content area
PUBLICATIONS REPORTED INTERVENTIONS (Interventions that Reported Submissions and/or Publications)
Thakurdesai et al, 201817 (eJCIndia; Electronic Journal Club India)India426 members at time of publication (ongoing programme), primarily in India, mostly students and faculty. Varied age, gender, areas of interest, and geographical location.Part of a larger programme; journal club activities help critical evaluation and writing.Ongoing online journal club; mentored writing support; small group writing e-workshop; peer review.Psychiatry
Klinkenberg et al, 201418 (Ethiopian Operational Research Initiative)Ethiopia52 participants completed programme in first 2 years (2012–2014); TB programme and university staff across Ethiopia.Part of a larger programme; main programme expanded capacity for TB research and control.4–6 day writing component in 15 month programme; train-the-trainer; mentored writing and editing support; peer review, individual writing practice*; post course, ongoing, mentored writing support.TB
Kramer et al 2016,35 Kramer, 201827Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South AfricaAttendance varied from 7 to 25 participants; mainly graduate students and researchers.Part of a larger programme; main university-wide multi-year programme included over 70 courses, incentives† and other activities (eg, writing retreats, funding opportunities, forums, workshops).3-day writing retreats: small group writing workshop; mentored writing and editing support; individual writing practice*; incentives.†Multiple topic areas
Ganju et al, 201836 (Knowledge Network)India70 participants; early-stage researchers without publishing experience plus 40 data analysts.Stand alone.Two 5-day writing workshops; first workshop: structured sequenced programme; didactic lecture‡; peer-editing practice; small group writing workshop; presentation; peer review; postcourse ongoing mentored writing support; second workshop: 5-day mentored writing and editing training; total of 32 weeks of support provided.HIV prevention programmes
Memiah et al, 201828Kenya and Tanzania5 cohorts of participants (n=98) included clinicians working for NGOs in Kenya and Tanzania; 83% of participants were female.Part of a larger programme; main programme trained clinicians to design, conduct, and publish scientific research.3 sequential writing workshops over 12 days (7 days total on manuscript writing/ publishing); didactic lecture‡; participatory; small group writing workshop; peer review; presentations; post course ongoing mentored writing support.HIV/AIDS
Mathai et al, 201929Kenya (University of Nairobi)45 trainees, 15 faculty, 9 nonacademic health workers participated over 3-year project.Part of a larger programme; main programme strengthened mental health research capacity in Kenya.1.5-day writing component in 2-week programme: didactic lecture‡, mentored writing and editing support; small group writing workshop; post course, presentations; 3 years ongoing mentored writing support.Mental health
Kempker et al, 201830Georgia, the country20 long-term trainees between 2004 and 2015; median age 29 years; majority (65%) were female, most (60%) employed at National Centre for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases; most (n=18) had medical degrees.Part of a larger programme; main programme provided didactic‡ and mentored TB-related research training; participants obtained MPH or MSCR at Emory University in Georgia in USA then transitioned to distance and in-country learning.Length of writing component not reported; didactic lecture‡; postcourse ongoing mentored writing support; leadership practice.TB
da Silva et al, 201931; Gureje et al, 201952; (PAM-D; Partnership for Mental Health Development in Africa); Supporting papers: Schneider et al, 201653; Pilowsky et al, 201654The hub spans Nigeria, Ghana, Kenya, Liberia, and S. Africa.35 early-career and mid-career researchers.Part of a larger programme; main programme a regional hub to increase resources and infrastructure, including research training, for mental health interventions in LMICs.4-day writing component; didactic lecture‡; one-on-one mentored writing and editing support; incentives.†Mental health
Fatima et al, 201932 (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative in Pakistan); Supporting paper: Ramsay et al, 2014453 courses in Pakistan, 1 in South Asia, 1 in Paris34 selectively enrolled health professionals in government, research, NGOs and academia. Some women.Part of a larger programme; Main programme supports development of operational research skills; three modules (5–7 days each) conducted over 9 months; first and second modules focused on research skills; third module focuses on scientific writing and publication. Milestone achievements required at specific timepoints; if not met participants were terminated from programme.5-day writing component: didactic lectures‡; small group writing workshops; mentored writing and editing support; presentation and feedback sessions; incentives†; post-programme mentored writing and submission support.Operational research
Guillerm et al, 201433; (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative); Supporting paper: Bissell et al, 2012378 courses were held in Paris, Hyderabad, Luxembourg, Fiji, Kathmandu, and Nairobi between 2012 −13.83 of 93 enrollees from LMICs completed one of 8 SORT-IT programmes; of 76 survey respondents, 43% worked in government health sector, 37% worked in NGOs, 20% were university based; over half were medical doctors and others were health staff and practitioners; male and female participants (numbers not reported).Part of a larger programme; main programme supports development of operational research skills; three modules (5–7 days each) over 9 months; first and second modules focus on research skills; third module focuses on scientific writing and publication. Milestone achievements required at specific timepoints; if these not met participants terminated from programme.5-day writing component: didactic lectures‡; small group writing workshops; mentored writing and editing support; presentation and feedback sessions; incentives†; post-programme mentored writing and submission support.Operational research
Zachariah et al, 201634; (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative in 64 LMICs); Supporting paper: Ramsay et al, 2014458 courses held in Europe, 6 in Asia, 3 in Africa, and three in Fiji between 2009 and 2014.236 participants from across Africa, Asia, Europe, South Pacific and South America (64 LMICs); most participants were clinicians; nearly half worked for ministry of health/public health programmes, 32% worked at NGOs; 41% were female.Part of a larger programme; main programme supports development of operational research skills; three modules (5–7 days each) over 9 months; first and second modules focus on research skills; third module focuses on scientific writing and publication. Milestone achievements required at specific timepoints; if these not met participants terminated from programme.5–7 days writing component: didactic lectures‡; small group writing workshops; presentations; mentored writing and editing support; incentives†; post programme mentored writing support.Operational research
Goel et al, 201819 (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative adapted for Tobacco Control)India (participants from across country).9 female and 5 male post graduate students and junior faculty in public health and medicine from India and Nepal.Part of a larger programme; main aim of programme to build capacity of public health professionals in operational research with focus on tobacco control using standard data set, with goal of submission within 4 weeks of the course; adapted to use fewer resources than standard SORT-IT intervention.5.5-day course integrating writing and data analysis; precourse work with matched mentors; didactic lectures; small group writing workshop; presentations; individual writing practice*; one-on-one mentored writing and editing support.Tobacco control
Kumar et al, 201320 (Union/MSF Operational Research Training§ adapted for Nepal); Supporting paper: Bissell et al, 201237Nepal12 male and female participants; primarily health professionals (physicians, programme managers, paramedical workers, data analysts) from India, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Timor Leste and Cambodia.Part of a larger programme; main programme supports development of operational research skills; 3 modules (5 days each) over 9 months; first and second modules focus on research skills; third module focuses on scientific writing and publication; goal was manuscript submission to peer-reviewed journal within 4 weeks of completing third module.5-day paper writing module; adapted Union/MSF intervention to include organising and managing references and peer writing support; small group writing workshop; matched new with experienced facilitators; lecture; peer mentoring; mentored writing and editing support.Operational research in multiple topic areas.
Odhiambo et al, 201721 (IORT (Intermediate Operational Research Training Programme; adapted from SORT-IT for Rwanda)Rwanda9 participants (1 female, 8 males); 6 were ministry clinical staff and three were programme staff all working in health service delivery in rural districts.Part of a larger programme; Seven 2-day sessions every 4–6 weeks over 8 months.2-day writing component; small group writing workshop; mentored writing and editing support; presentation and feedback sessions; individual writing practice*; post programme mentored writing support.Operational research.
OTHER INTERVENTIONS (Interventions that Did Not Report Submissions and /or Publications)
Merritt et al, 201922 (ACES; Academic Competencies Series)Blantyre, MalawiPostdocs and Master of Philosophy fellows in Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe; 12 participated in writing workshop.Part of a larger programme; main programme focused on career development skills.5-day writing component, residential; didactic lecture‡, text book; peer editing practice, individual writing practice, mentored writing and editing support.Multiple topic areas
Usher et al, 201523 (APEDNN; Asia Pacific Emergency and Disaster Nursing Network)Cairns, Australia23 nurses (faculty, consultants, staff at ministries of health) involved in disaster management from Asia-Pacific region; some women.Part of a larger programme; main programme enhanced technical and research skills to support management and research of disasters in Asia-Pacific region.Length of writing component not reported; part of 3-week course; didactic lecture; peer editing practice; matched mentors; post course, ongoing mentored writing support.Nursing disaster management
Atindehou et al, 201924 (MooSciTIC: A shot of science!)Trainings were hosted in Benin20 lecturers and research scientists from seven academic institutions in Benin, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, DRC, Ivory Coast, Niger, Senegal, and Togo; 56% female.Part of a larger programme; main programme strengthened capacity by ‘training the trainers’ on scientific writing, communication and integrity.Length of writing component not reported; train-the-trainer; didactic lecture‡; small group writing workshop.Multiple topic areas
Varadaraj et al, 201925; Varadaraj et al, 201655India and NepalParticipants from India (n=65) and Nepal (n=30); mostly 20–39 years of age; most affiliated with medical or dental departments at universities; 70%–80% female.Part of a larger programme; main programme used expertise of diaspora health providers and researchers to improve research interest and output in LMICs.½ day on writing of 2-day research seminar; reading material; didactic lecture‡; small group writing workshop; presentations.Biomedical research
Harries et al, 200326Malawi25 TB officers, varying educational backgrounds (some without degrees).Part of a larger programme; main programme increased capacity for operational research on TB.½-day writing component of 1 day workshop; didactic lecture; incentives†; individual writing practice*.TB control
Mbuagbaw et al, 201138Cameroon15 Cameroonian university lecturers and researchers in health institutions, 12 were clinicians.Stand alone.4-day writing workshop; small group writing workshop.Clinical medicine or health systems research
  • *Individual writing practice refers to protected writing time.

  • †Incentives include small grants, graded, stipend, awards.

  • ‡Didactic lectures refer to courses, trainings, lectures and sessions.

  • §Union/MSF is the pre-cursor to the SORT-IT intervention.

  • DRC, Democratic Republic of the Congo; LMICs, low-income and middle-income countries; MSF, Médecins Sans Frontières; NGO, Non-governmental organisation; TB, tuberculosis.