Table 2

Description of instructor characteristics, topics, skills and/or learning activities covered, whether participants had data at training event, and type of mentoring support for the 20 interventions in the analytical sample

Intervention nameInstructor/ facilitator/mentor characteristics and country affiliationTopics, skills and/or learning activitiesParticipants had data for their manuscript at training eventType and timing of mentor support
PUBLICATIONS REPORTED INTERVENTIONS (Interventions that Reported Submissions and/or Publications)
Thakurdesai et al, 201817 (eJCIndia; Electronic Journal Club India)Indian researchers in field of psychiatryActivities include posts (questions or materials sent to group to improve knowledge and skills); reviewer training (members who are journal editors recruit small teams to participate in confidential manuscript review); journal article discussions, critiques and group commentaries.YesMentored journal club subgroups collaboratively wrote and published critiques of published articles.
Klinkenberg et al, 201418 (Ethiopian Operational Research Initiative)Ethiopian and international collaboratorsWriting journal articlesYesOngoing support by mentors to submit manuscript to a peer-reviewed international journal
Kramer and Libhaber, 2016,35 Kramer and Libhaber, 201827Writing retreat facilitators were academics with PhDs and expertise in scientific writing; facilitator affiliation not reported.Writing and publishing journal articles, literature reviews, theses, critiques of articles.YesWriting retreats: less experienced researchers received feedback and ongoing support on manuscript drafts from mentors.
Ganju et al, 201836 (Knowledge Network)Not reportedWriting and publishing journal articles; authorship; publication ethics; addressing reviewer feedback; literature searching; reference manager software; problem conceptualisation; data presentation; preparing abstract; barriers to publishing (time constraints; understanding writing conventions; mentorship; and writing confidence).YesOver 10 weeks following first writing workshop: writing support by mentors, access to published literature; subsequent workshop provided time and mentor guidance, enabling participants to revise manuscripts and prepare submissions to peer-reviewed journals.
Memiah et al, 201828Faculty and instructors from University of West Florida, University of British Columbia and Kenya Medical Research Institute developed curriculum.Writing a scientific journal article; organisation; references; writing an abstractYesDuring workshop: participants wrote manuscript drafts and revised based on mentor feedback; following workshop: participants continued to work with mentor monthly.
Mathai et al, 201929University of Washington faculty taught workshop sessions at beginning; responsibility shifted to University of Nairobi faculty by year 3.Research methods workshop: writing journal articles, literature reviews, literature searching tools; ‘thesis-to-publication’ workshops.YesTrainees worked closely with mentors throughout and after programme for writing support; faculty mentors from both institutions collaboratively edited trainee manuscripts.
Kempker et al, 201830In first year, students travelled to Emory or other programmes in USA to earn MPH or MS Clinical Research degrees; in second cycle, focus shifted to Georgia the country.Writing journal articles; written and spoken English language training provided as needed.YesEvery trainee had mentor in Georgia the country and USA; mentors provided ongoing support for preparing and editing manuscripts.
da Silva et al, 201931; Gureje et al, 201952; (PAM-D; Partnership for Mental Health Development in Africa); Supporting papers: Schneider et al, 201653; Pilowsky et al, 201654Instructors from hub countries as well as other collaborating countries (eg, the UK).First workshop: phrasing research question; identifying suitable journal; abstract writing, introduction and discussion sections; second writing workshop: one-on-one sessions with facilitators; additionally, three participants trained in systematic reviews.YesSupport provided via one-on-one sessions in writing workshop and through additional mentoring throughout programme.
Fatima et al, 201932 (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative in Pakistan); Supporting paper: Ramsay et al, 201445First course: international and national facilitators and mentors; subsequent courses, national faculty, many trained from previous SORT-IT courses.Writing journal articles; how to submit paper to journal; navigating peer review process including responding to reviewers (standard SORT-IT protocol).YesOne-on-one mentoring provided during training modules and over email between modules and afterwards until paper was published (standard SORT-IT protocol).
Guillerm et al, 201433; (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative); Supporting paper: Bissell et al, 201237Not reportedWriting journal articles; how to submit paper to journal; navigating peer review process including responding to reviewers (standard SORT-IT protocol).YesOne-on-one mentoring provided during training modules and over email between modules and afterwards until paper was published (standard SORT-IT protocol).
Zachariah et al, 201634; (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative in 64 LMICs); Supporting paper: Ramsay et al, 201445Senior facilitators were NGO staff; 88% of facilitators were from LMICs, most were medical doctors or public health practitioners; 37% were female.Writing journal articles; how to submit paper to journal; navigating peer review process including responding to reviewers (standard SORT-IT protocol).YesOne-on-one mentoring provided during training modules, over email between modules and afterwards until paper was published (standard SORT-IT protocol).
Goel et al, 201819 (SORT-IT; Structured Operational Research Training Initiative adapted for Tobacco Control)Nine facilitators who had conducted operational research or had taught operational research courses.Scientific English writing; writing results; writing an abstract; creating tables and figures, references, choosing a journal, electronic submission, peer review, revision, research questions, conflicts of interest, and authorship.YesFacilitators mentored trainees before and during the programme. Follow-up support was not reported.
Kumar et al, 201320 (Union/MSF Operational Research Training* adapted for Nepal); Supporting paper: Bissell et al, 201237Facilitators were participants in previous courses.Writing journal articles, online submission, peer review, and manuscript revision.YesTwo facilitators mentored groups of three trainees during the 5-day workshop. Follow-up support was not reported.
Odhiambo et al, 201721 (IORT (Intermediate Operational Research Training Programme; adapted from SORT-IT for Rwanda)Two primary facilitators/mentors were a PhD-level biostatistician and an MPH-level trainer with research and public health programme experience.Writing journal articles, creating an outline, managing references; choosing a journal, authorship, acknowledgements, and the paper development process from submission to publication.YesOn average, mentors provided 2 hours of mentorship per week per team for 25 weeks and fellows provided 4 hours of mentorship per week per team for 15 weeks, for a total of 110 hours of mentorship for each research project during practicum and through publication.
OTHER INTERVENTIONS (Interventions that Did Not Report Submissions and /or Publications)
Merritt et al, 201922 (ACES; Academic Competencies Series)US-based clinical academics with extensive publication experienceWriting journal articles; cover letters; grammar, organisation, syntax, publication skillsYesParticipants worked on manuscript draft during workshop including one-on-one mentored writing support
Usher et al, 201523 (APEDNN; Asia Pacific Emergency and Disaster Nursing Network)Led by members of James Cook University’s WHO Organisation Collaborating Centre Staff, including a research intern.Library tutorials, referencing software, English expression and editingNoFollow-up mentorship provided after in-person component ended
Atindehou et al, 201924 (MooSciTIC: A shot of science!)Not reportedLiterature mining, reference database management, journal guidelines, strategies for efficient writing, the peer review process; writing journal articles.NoThis was a ‘train-the-trainers’ intervention, so not applicable
Varadaraj et al, 201925; Varadaraj et al, 201655Diaspora physicians from India (n=2) or Nepal (n=1), alumni of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthLiterature review, using databases, creating libraries, using reference managers, writing journal articles; referencing, citations, publishingNoNot reported
Harries et al, 200326Local personnel from Malawi National Tuberculosis Control ProgrammeWriting journal articlesYesAuthors reported that support was not feasible
Mbuagbaw et al, 201138Facilitators were from diverse locations and had expertise in systematic reviews and meta-analyses as well as content expertise.Systematic reviews and meta-analysis; asking answerable questions, searching and selecting studies, data extraction, the Cochrane collaboration and library, interpretation of systematic reviews, searching for reviews, overview systematic reviews on health systems and organisation of care, finalising a review, publishing challenges and tips.NoNot reported
  • *Union/MSF is the precursor to the SORT-IT intervention.

  • LMICs, low-income and middle-income countries; MPH, Master of Public Health; MS, Master of Science; MSF, Médecins Sans Frontières; NGO, Non-governmental organisation.