Table 1

Summary of the elements of the two-dimensional benefit sharing framework

Dimension 1: Stakeholders
Macrolevel stakeholders
These stakeholders generally make decisions and provide services at a national or higher level, and include global and regional organisations, national organisations, governments, policy makers, regulatory bodies and organisations, legislators and public health officials. For example, The WHO, the African Union or the Government of South Africa.
Mesolevel stakeholders
These stakeholders may impact provincial, state, municipal or institutional level. They may include some larger community groups. Examples include Academic institutions, ethics review boards, particular population groups, provincial governments, provincial health services, funders, educators, biotech or private health service companies, institutions and facilities.
Microlevel stakeholders
These are individuals, families or small community groups who operate at a personal or interpersonal level. For example, Members of the general population, research participants and their families, researchers and students, healthcare providers, patients, community leaders and community advisory boards.
Dimension 2: Benefit sharing categories
Financial: Direct monetary gain by stakeholders.
Health and well-being: Improved individual and/or population health and well-being for stakeholders.
Infrastructure: Built or logistical infrastructure that benefits stakeholders.
Equipment: Specialised equipment used by stakeholders to conduct their work.
Skills capacity: Learnt specialised skills to undertake tasks and conduct work.
Knowledge: Specialist knowledge that improves how stakeholders solve problems, undertake tasks and conduct work.
Services capacity: Capacity for stakeholders to provide certain services to the public and general population.
Career development: Opportunities for stakeholders to establish employment security and/or progress in their careers.
Attribution and recognition: Appropriate acknowledgement and advertising of inputs and contributions from stakeholders.