Table 4

Near and distance glasses studies and indicators

Study designCohortCross-sectionalMixed-methodsSecondary cross-sectionalTotal
Assessment approachesClinical onlySelf-report onlyFunctional onlyClinical and self-reportClinical and functionalOther combinationSecondary sources (multiple)
Participants (N)*<500500–9991000–49995000–999910 000–24 999>25 000Not available
Age (years) Included†Under 15<15 to 85+15 to 85+40 to 85+60 to 85+Over 85Other
JBI score<778910
Vision functioning difficulty or impairment definitionUse of APReported activity limitationsClinical thresholdCombination
AP access indicatorTotal needMet needUnmet needUndermet needCoverageUseHas APUncorrected REUndercorrected RE
Indicator denominatorTotal with/using APTotal with needTotal with functioning difficultyTotal participantsTotal populationTotal with unmet need
  • *Participants (N) ranged from 134 to 3 983 541 for this domain.

  • †Age group boundaries varied considerably by study; studies are sorted into categories that most closely represent their included age boundaries.

  • AFR, African Region; AMR, Region of the Americas; AP, assistive product; EMR, Eastern Mediterranean Region; EUR, European Region; JBI, Joanna Briggs Institute; RE, Refractive Error; SEAR, Southeast Asian Region; WPR, Western Pacific Region.