Table 2

Baseline demographic and housing structure characteristics of the population, March 2017

CharacteristicsTotal populationControlInterventionP value
Sex* (n=16 203)
Male8538 (52.69)4426 (52.79)4112 (52.59)0.136
Female7665 (47.31)3958 (47.21)3707 (47.41)
Age* (n=15 792)
<51814 (11.48)921 (11.41)893 (11.57)0.331
5–184599 (29.12)2350 (29.11)2249 (29.14)
19–457380 (46.73)3751 (46.46)3629 (47.01)
46–641770 (11.21)918 (11.37)852 (11.04)
>65229 (1.45)133 (1.65)96 (1.24)
Education level of the head of the household† (n=2906)
No2250 (77.43)1174 (77.80)1076 (62.12)0.251
Any656 (22.57)335 (22.20)321 (37.88)
Family size
Four members or less903 (33.30)503 (35.05)400 (31.35)0.045
Five to 6 members781 (28.80)418 (29.11)363 (28.45)
More than six members1028 (37.91)515 (35.86)513 (40.20)
Household income (US$, daily)† (n=2304)
Less than US$21127 (48.91)498 (43.38)628 (54.37)<0.001
US$2 or more1177 (51.09)650 (56.62)537 (45.63)
House description and size† (n=2707)
Hut31 (1.15)18 (1.25)13 (1.02)0.327
House (<80 sq. yards)1838 (67.87)995 69.29)843 (66.33)
Houses (>80 sq. yards)481 (17.76)245 (17.06)236 (18.57)
Flats/apartments357 (13.19)178 (12.40)179 (14.08)
Any window in the house, yes2448 (90.17)1264 (51.63)1184 (48.37)<0.001
Westward facing house, yes1308 (48.18)744 (56.88)564 (43.12)<0.001
Roof type (n=2710)†‡
Non-concrete547 (20.18)359 (25.02)188 (14.75)<0.001
Concrete2163 (79.82)1076 (74.98)1087 (85.25)
Water source (n=2699)†§
Outside home1240 (45.94)626 (43.84)614 (48.31)0.020
Inside home1459 (54.06)802 (56.16)657 (51.69)
Other resources
Electricity, yes2416 (88.99)1279 (52.94)1137 (47.06)0.938
Telephone, yes30 (1.10)18 (60.00)12 (40.00)0.438
Cellphone, yes2139 (78.78)1127 (52.69)1012 (47.31)0.578
Generator, yes137 (5.05)69 (50.36)68 (49.64)0.531
Room cooler¶, yes15 (0.52)6 (40.00)9 (60.00)0.313
Television, yes1947 (71.71)1059 (54.39)888 (45.61)0.018
  • *Number of individuals.

  • †Number of households.

  • ‡Non-concrete includes thatch/bamboo/wood/mud/cardboard/plastic/iron sheets/asbestos; concrete includes T-iron/wood/brick/reinforced brick cement/Reinforced cement concrete (RCC)/tile beam.

  • §Inside home—tap, hand pump, well, boring: outside home—community tap, community hand pump, tanker, others.

  • ¶Coolers that work on the evaporative cooling where evaporated water is used to cool the air.