Table 1

Health consequences associated with female genital mutilation (FGM), their excess annual risks in FGM-affected individuals and associated economic cost

ComplicationCosts and resource utilisationAnnual excess risks in FGM group*
Commodity cost (2018)
US$
Outpatient consultationsInpatient daysChildhoodAdult: non-reproductiveAdult: reproductiveLater lifeOne-time cost†Applicable FGM typesReferences
Acute consequences
Abscess on vulvar area111.3%0.0%0.0%0.0%1III 95
Excessive bleeding0330.1%0.0%0.0%0.0%1III 29 38 45 65 66 94
Excessive bleeding0318.6%0.0%0.0%0.0%1I/II 29 38 39 56 74 76 78 94
Infected wounds1011.6%0.0%0.0%0.0%1I/II 39 78 94
Infected wounds105.2%0.0%0.0%0.0%1III 39 94
Genital ulcer101.6%0.0%0.0%0.0%1I/II/III 88
Urogenital complications
Bacterial vaginosis0.290.50.50.0%11.4%0.0%0.0%0I/II/III 63
Clitoral neuroma010.0%0.2%0.2%0.0%0I/II 62
Genitourinary tract (infection)0.290.50.50.0%0.6%0.6%0.0%0I/II/III 21
Keloids of labia010.0%0.6%0.6%0.0%0I/II 62
Menstrual difficulties200.0%2.4%0.0%0.0%0I/II/III 46 48 72 96
Recurrent UTIs0.290.50.51.9%1.9%1.9%1.9%0I/II/III 63
Kidney infection0.290.50.51.5%1.5%1.5%1.5%0I/II/III 40
Obstetric complications
Caesarean17.63070.0%0.0%4.2%0.0%0I/II/III 21 27 32 36 40 44 45 48 52 54 84 87 92 98 99
Dystocy2.71010.0%0.0%9.0%0.0%0I/II/III 40 63 79
Episiotomy0.07000.0%0.0%25.4%0.0%0I/II 51 62 93 101
Episiotomy0.07000.0%0.0%38.5%0.0%0III 22 101 102
Low birth weight000.0%0.0%2.0%0.0%0I/II/III 22 80 102
Obstructed labour2.71010.0%0.0%4.0%0.0%0I/II/III 40 72 98
Perineal tear (second degree)0.07000.0%0.0%12.3%0.0%0I/II 93
Perineal tear (third degree)0.07000.0%0.0%5.3%0.0%0I/II 93
Perineal tear (first degree)0.07000.0%0.0%10.7%0.0%0I/II 93
Perineal tear (third degree)0.07000.0%0.0%10.0%0.0%0III 99
Urethral tear0.07000.0%0.0%3.5%0.0%0III 45
Urethral tear0.07000.0%0.0%4.3%0.0%0I/II 93
Newborn resuscitated0.49020.0%0.0%4.4%0.0%0I/II/III 40 84
Psychological/sexual complications
Anxiety (moderate to severe)3.9320.280.0%4.1%0.0%4.1%0I/II/III 28
Depression (moderate to severe)3.9320.280.0%1.3%0.0%1.3%0I/II/III 67
Dyspareunia100.0%2.8%0.0%0.0%0I/II/III 19 21 46 48
Sexual dysfunction100.0%3.2%0.0%0.0%0I/II/III 91
  • *Excess risk is the additional annual risk of each complication in an FGM-affected individual.

  • †1 if the cost is associated with the acute FGM event, 0 otherwise.