Table 1

Summary description of included studies

StudyCountryStudy settingStudy designStudy periodNo of patients (deaths)Effect estimate: OR (95% CI)Quality assessment rating
Duke11Papua New Guinea5 hospitals (3 in highland, 1 coastal and 1 inland)Prospective before-and-after controlled study2005–200711 291 (489)0.64 (0.52 to 0.78)Moderate
Gray13Lao PDR20 district hospitalsProspective before-and-after controlled study2011–20131403 (25)0.32 (0.13 to 0.80)Moderate
Graham14Nigeria12 secondary level hospitals in Southwest Nigeria (Oyo, Ondo, Ogun, and Osun states)Stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial with a prospective before-and-after extended analysis2015–20172858 (195)0.46 (0.23 to 0.92)Strong
Duke12Papua New Guinea38 rural hospitalsProspective before-and-after controlled study2015–201718 933 (530)0.47 (0.39 to 0.57)Moderate